This graphic was discovered by Ken Shattock, a Staplegrove Shattock descendant, in the main library in London attached to the Shattock name. It was described as a "Dexter Hand Holding a Lion's Gamb." Translation: right hand holding a lion's leg or shank."
This website organizes research I have done into the Shattocke ancestral family, including such name variants as Shattock, Shattuck, Shaddick, Shaddock, Shadduck and so on.
You can use the search function above right to find a specific reference.
This "Origins" page explores the family's deep history, before 1500.
" page describes family history after 1500 and the emigration of a major portion of the family to the British colonies due to economic and technological forces in the 17th to 20th centuries.
You can explore branches of the worldwide family tree under the "Branches" menu. You can also use the search function. If you do not find your branch of the family attached to our tree, DNA testing may help you find that connection. Contact me
Note: When I am referring to the entire family I will use "Shattocke" as a generic reference to all the different spellings of the name found in the records, like Shattock, Shattuck, Shaddock, Shaddick, Shadduck and so on.
The Story So Far...
Celtic costumes typical in the Celtic La Tène culture, 3rd century BC. Wikipedia image.
DNA testing has shown that Shattockes are descended from La Tène Celts, whose ancestral grounds were in what is the modern day Swiss and southern Germany Alps. We are uncertain of when our ancestor migrated from the Alps to England.
A study of the early parish records in the 16th century indicates that Shattockes are found in an area of about 130 square miles (335 square kilometers), roughly equal to the administrative district of Taunton Deane. See the Somerset Shattocks page for the study I did that shows the concentration of Shattockes in West Somerset when records began.
Although you will often see our surname confused with "Chadwick, Shadwick, Chaddock" DNA testing has proven people who are genetic descendants with these surnames are unrelated to Shattockes. For example, Shadwicks come from Lancashire, in the far north of England. Shattockes are English "west country" folk.
Genetically, we belong to a sub-clade of the human tree, named after a mutation we all share: Z36. This is solid proof that we descend from La Tène Celts. Our common ancestor fathered a new branch of Z36 called Y16884. If you have the Y16884 mutation you are a descendant of this common ancestor. On the family tree maintained by YFull, the nearest branch to us, A7993, shares a common ancestor with us more than 4200 years ago or about 2200 BC. That makes Shattockes and our cousins the Parrishs exceedingly rare. Also, descendants of Z36 Celts are extremely rare among living Devon descendants. We are in fact the only ones found there. This argues for the immigration of a single individual male to England about 1330 AD. However this finding is controversial.
Shattockes have a genetic cousin, the Parrishs. These are people with the Parrish (or variation) surname, who have the Y16884 mutation. Not all people with the Parrish surname are our genetic cousins, only those with the Y16884 mutation. They appear to descend from an individual who lived in ca. 1585 AD. He might have had a Parrish mother or have been adopted by a Parrish family, but he definitely had a Shattocke father.
There are major branches of the Shattocke family. The West Somerset Shattocks
are direct descendants of the original Shattocke settler in west Somerset and spell their name closest to the one we first find in the records. I focus on the west Somerset Shattockes on the Taunton Shattocks
The Staplegrove Church (near Taunton) apparently contains Shattocke inscriptions that date back to the 14th century, roughly when the church was built
Sometime around 1640, a family of Shattockes left west Somerset as pilgrims and landed in the Massachusetts Bay colony. There are two young men and a "Widow Shattuck" that show up in the early records.
A family legend among Staplegrove Shattocks tells of a once prominent and wealthy family that owned many local farms and an estate on one mile square of land. But the ancestors fell into gambling and "wild living" and lost the entail on the land. Realizing the error of their ways, two brothers left for America in the 17th century. Given that there were just two English colonies in America at this time, the family legend happens to coincide with the records of two Shattuck males and a female Shattocke widow emigrating to the Massachusetts Bay colony in the early 17th century, although it is certainly possible the Staplegrove Shattockes were later 17th century or early 18th century emigrants to New England. See what I have written about this in the page devoted to the Staplegrove Shattocks
. It is still a matter of study, but the evidence so far indicates the Virginia Shaddocks
also left west Somerset about 1637 and settled in the Chesapeake Bay colony of Virginia. They are now found throughout the south of the USA.
Robert Walter Weir - the embarkation of the pilgrims
The most common way of spelling the American descendants of west Somerset Shattockes is "Shattuck." The Massachusetts Shattucks
are the most numerous Shattockes in the world, about 8,000 strong out of a total Shattocke population of 13,000. DNA studies have so far confirmed they are descended from a single individual, William Shattuck (ca. 1622-1672). So far the evidence also indicates a very large southern population of Shattockes, the South Carolina Shaddocks
, might also descend from William Shattuck. If not they are descended from a closely related family among the west Somerset Shattocks.
The Shattockes of west Somerset also appear to have migrated south to the neighboring county of Devon. When records began in the early 16th century, Shattockes are found in North Molton, a border village with a thriving wool industry. See the North Molton
page for a study I made of the history of North Molton and its place in the wool industry. Subsequently they spread south, occupying north Devon and branching off to the Yarnscombe Shattockes
and its sub-branches the New Brunswick Shaddicks
, the Tawstock Shaddocks
, and the Burrington Shaddocks
. Another branch of the North Molton Shattockes are the Instow Shaddicks
The village of Culmstock is just at the border of Somerset in the north east of Devon. It seems likely the village became inhabited by Shattockes from Somerset, although this statement waits for genealogical or genetic proof. A major branch of the Culmstock Shaddocks
is descended from a female Shattocke. It is possible, but so far not proven, that the Birmingham Shaddocks
are a branch of the Culmstock Shaddocks, possibly the lineage descending from the female Shattocke.
There are other branches of the Shattocke family whose attachment to the family tree is unknown at this point because we have not found a descendant who we can DNA test, like the Mourambine, Australia Shaddicks
That is the summary of the research so far. For the rest of this page I will go deep into the details of our ancient origin.
The Earliest Records
It is quite possible that the first recorded reference to Shattockes in England are under some carpets in the north aisle of the Staplegrove church near Taunton in West Somerset. I have not seen them but members of the west Somerset Shattocks apparently have. The inscriptions found there apparently date back to the 14th century.
The first occurrence of the name I have found in paper records is Shattock. It is found in the records for the "Court of Star Chamber."
Reference: STAC 2/26/51. Description: Court of Star
Chamber: Proceedings, Henry VIII. BUNDLE XXVI. PLAINTIFF: Charles Walgrave,
Richard Pollard, Robert Cheverell, and John Callard DEFENDANT: Alexander Shattock, Richard Shattock,
Thomas Smele, Thomas Bodye, Thomas Northe, and Christopher Mollyns PLACE OR
SUBJECT: Riot in the manor of Lydyard COUNTY:Wilts. Date: 22/04/1509-28/01/1547. Held by: The National Archives, Kew
The Star Chamber was a special court set up to try common people in a legal dispute with socially and politically powerful people to ensure their fair treatment.
Richard is a very common name among Shattockes. Alexander is not as common but shows up in the records of early Shattockes, like an Alexander Shattock who is a beneficiary in the will of John Wolcott c. 1547-1623 of Tolland, a miller, will dated 1623, “7 pence each to Richard Locke and Alexander Shattuck.” It is possible that the Shattocks were involved in a dispute about land that had traditionally been held in common (the commons) by farmers but had been gradually seized by powerful local gentry and converted to their private use. At this time the wool trade was burgeoning.
There is another case that was tried in the Star Chamber in 1570 that involved a Shattock.
17 November 1570 –
16 November 1571. Reference: STAC 5/S84/2. Description: Smale and Shattock v. White and others. Date: 13
Eliz. Held by: The National Archives, Kew
And a third case:
Reference: STAC 5/B6/28; Description: Bowne v Dibble, Quick,
Croker, Shattock. Date: Easter 36
Eliz; Held by: The National Archives, Kew; Date: 17 November 1593 – 16 November 1594
The fact that Shattocks showed up as either litigants or defendants in the Star Chamber adds evidence to the assertion that the Shattocks were a "prominent" family in the letters written by a descendant of the Staplegrove Shattocks, James William Shattock (1860-1948) to his son and a "Miss Shattock." See the Staplegrove Shattocks
The next time the name is encountered it is in 1524. At Bampton Parish in 1524 a tax payer called Thomas Shatok was taxed for ownership of goods. It appears that he or his son (John Shattocke) were taxed again in 1543, also based on ownership of goods. In all cases I have found that the double "t" version of the name (as in Shattocke or Shattick) is the most ancient spelling of the family name, preceding all other variants.
The Etymological Evidence: Shatticke and Shattocke
If you do a web search for the origin of the name Shaddock, Shaddick or Shattock, you are told it comes from people who lived in Lancashire and Worcestershire with modern versions such as Chadwick, Shadwick or Chaddock and ancient forms as Chaddewyk or Cheddewic. But genealogical records firmly establish Shattockes in the English west country, primarily in the counties of Somerset and Devon. And DNA testing has shown they are not Anglo-Saxon but rather La Tène Celts who are found in Switzerland and southern Germany some 5000 years ago.
In the first edition of the authoritative Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain and Ireland, this confusion of the two name is repeated, albeit skeptically. On the basis of the DNA studies I and the project administrator for the Chaddock surname at Family Tree DNA (Philip Chaddock) have made, the Family Name in the United Kingdom Project will make it clear in the second edition of the Dictionary that Chaddock is not a variation of Shaddock or Shattock. Dr. Peter McClure, Principal Etymologist, has this to say about the Shattocke surname (in an email to me):
The etymology of Shaddock and Shattock remains a puzzle, partly because we have no certain instances of it in the medieval records, unless Saddok belongs with it, but the etymology of Saddok is also obscure. I agree with your website that a family involved in the woollen cloth industry could have arrived in SW England from Flanders in he 14th century, so it is worth looking for a Flemish surname origin. I’ve not been able to find one. I’m a aware of the continental surname Schadeck, which does exist in modern-day Belgium, and which may derive from Schadeck in Attert (Luxemburg) or Schadeck in Nassau (Germany), but there seems to be no evidence of it as a surname in medieval Flanders, and I’m not keen to offer it as a possible explanation of your name until there is evidence for an earlier Flemish usage.
I think that there is the possibility that the surname is an English locative name from a lost or unidentified place named in Middle English as *Shadok or *Shatok. This would be either from an unrecorded Old English *scēaduc ‘little boundary’, or from one of two Old English compounds scēad + āc ‘boundary oak’ or scēat + āc ‘corner oak’. A name of this type + Old English hyrst ‘wooded hill’ is possibly attested in the Kent place-name Shadoxhurst, recorded in the 13th century as Shattokeshurst, Sadhokesherst, and Chaddekesherst. You can see the evidence and explanations in V. Watts, Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names, at Shadoxhurst. I am going to put this tentative suggestion in the second edition of the Oxford dictionary.
If you quote this from shaddock.ca please acknowledge this as the source: Family Names in the United Kingdom Project, University of the West of England (unpublished research).
The research conducted by the Family Names in the United Kingdom Project must stand as the authoritative guide to the origins of the Shattocke name. Hopefully further DNA studies will give us guidance on the origin of the family. For example, it would be interesting to compare the genetic markers of a Belgium or German person with the Schadeck surname to a Shattock descendant. A close match would be good evidence of the immigrant German ca. 1330 AD thesis.
The Shattocke Diaspora and the Spelling of the Surname
The evolution of the spelling of the family name from its first appearance in the records (early 16th century) as Shattocke or Shatticke is a key to figuring out where the Shattockes come from. It is very powerful tool along with DNA in trying to fill in the gaps in the record and in trying to peer farther into the past then the records allow. My own experience confirms this. One was hearing Robert Shaddock on the phone from Alabama pronouncing his last name like "Shaddick." Another was hearing on the phone Terry Shattuck, who lives in Georgia, pronouncing his name like "Shaddock." A helpful resource in deciphering the variations in the Shattocke name (e.g. Shaddock, Shaddick, Shattuck, Shadduck) is "Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America" (Oxford University Press, 1989) by David Hackett Fischer. What we learn from Albion's Seed is that the New England twang has its roots in the dialects of the original colonists home in Somerset and East Anglia. To wit, the Somerset dialect transformed "o" into "u" hence Shattuck rather than Shattock. They would say "Zumerset" instead of "Somerset." The sharp Yankee twang preserves the "tt" in Shattock from one of its origins as an East Anglia dialect, hence Shattuck. Meanwhile the southern drawl of the Virginia colonists (derivative of the south west of England) softens the "tt" into "dd" and preservers the "o", hence Shaddock, instead of Shattuck or Shattock. In the past I have assumed that the spelling of names is more due to the way the name sounds in the dialect of the local area in England rather than simply a misspelling...and this proves to be true.
John Shattock, a modern descendant of west Somerset Shattocks, who now lives in Leicester, but who often visits relatives in west Somerset, has this to say about the way the name is pronounced (in an email to me): "The dialect is very pronounced [in west Somerset] and varies almost from village to village, although probably less now than it did in time before radio and TV. The closer to Devon border the more likely the double “t” will be pronounced as a double “d”. Although my name is spelled Shattock it is likely to be pronounced Shaddock or Shattuck or Shadduck. My grandfather pronounced it as Shattuck but some of his brothers in the way that your name is spelt. My father pronounced it with the “tuck” ending. I do not live in Somerset so tend to say “tock” because it is easier to explain the spelling when asked because Shattock is a rare name within England and even today most with this name will be found in Somerset and London."
Record of the marriage of my ancestor Richard "Shattocke" to Agnes Strellin in 1659.
"Shattick" does not seem to have survived as a variant of the Shattock name as a scientific study between 2000-2005 (Onomaps) does not have a record of that surname.
The Shadduck Version
A version of the Shattuck name appears to be "Shadduck." DNA testing of at least one Shadduck descendant showed him to be a Shattuck descendant. The fact is the name occurs virtually exclusively in the U.S. The Onomaps study shows there were 885 people with this name variant in the U.S. and a small handful in Germany (3 or 4!).
The Chaddock Surname
According to Philip Chaddock (one letter removed from my name) who is an administrator of the DNA project for the FTDNA Chaddock project, the name probably derives from a medieval village, Chaddock, that once existed just west of modern day Manchester. The original spelling was Chaydok , with variants such as Chaidok, Chaydoke and Chaidoke, among others. It stabilized as Chaddock in the late 1600s.
Philip Chaddock traces his ancestors back to Staffordshire and he belongs to haplogroup R-CTS10893, which is a subclade of U106. It is thought U106 people descend from Germanic tribes that inhabited what is modern day Denmark and northern Germany. They are part of a distinctly different migration of early peoples into Europe than Shattocke ancestors. This makes Philip Chaddock very different in his ancestral origin than Shattockes. The bottom line is that people who are descendants of Chaddocks and other variants in the north of England are not genetically related to West Somerset Shattockes.
The Chadwick or Shadwick Surnames
The Chadwick and Shadwick surnames have sometimes been mixed up with Shattocke variants in places like Dorset or New England. The Instow and Frithelstock branches of the family have Shadwick variations and Lemuel Shattuck mentions Shadwick as a version of Shattuck. But DNA tests of descendants of Chadwicks or Shadwicks from English areas north like Lancashire have proven that their ancestors are not even remotely related to Shattockes of south western England. The mix up in names occurs especially often in places like New York state where incoming immigrants in colonial times, arriving with heavy accents, often had their names recorded incorrectly. In two different cases I have examined, one Shaddock was actually a Polish immigrant and the other was a Chadwick from Lancashire.
There are very early records of a surname "Saddok" in the patent rolls and various legal documents dating back to 1288 AD in the county of Berkshire. John, son of Richard Saddock is a tenant on the Stroud farm in the civil parish of Bray in the county of Berkshire in that year. There is a long history of the Saddok family in the county, with its most prominent member, Andrew Saddok, the rector of Whyte Waltham, a parish in Berkshire. He was apparently a man of property and wealth, as "Andrew Saddok and Richard Hanard owned an interest in the Earley Batholomew manor as of 1344 until 1355." The Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain and Ireland
lists Saddok as possible early form of Shattocke, although Saddok has an obscure origin. It is possible, and the earliest reference to the name happens to coincide with the estimated date when the common ancestor of all Shattockes lived. The name disappears from the records about the time Shattocke begins appearing in parish records in west Somerset. I have collected the references to the Saddok family in a subpage
of this one. One reference spells the name "Saddock." If Saddok or Saddock is an early form of the Shattocke name, then the proximity of the county of Berkshire to London might support the theory of an early immigrant to England from Europe, since London was a major entry point, and the family could have migrated in a south west direction.
Captain Shaddock and The Forbidden Fruit
When was the first time you looked up "Shaddock" or "Shaddick" in the dictionary? If it was in the previous century you would have seen it was the name of a type of grapefruit whose parental seeds were brought to the West Indies by a Captain Philip Shaddock. However a couple of botany researchers published a paper in 1987 ( "Mystery of the forbidden fruit: Historical epilogue on the origin of the grapefruit, Citrus paradisi (Rutaceae) by J. Kumamoto et al.") that shows a paper trail back to the original spelling of the name, Chaddock, not Shaddock. It was also popularly known as the shattuck fruit, another variant name. The shaddock or shattuck fruit should have been called chaddock, or perhaps chaddocke or chadock, since these are other spellings of Captain Philip Chaddock's name!
Philip Chaddock's Y-DNA does not match any Shaddocks that have been tested against him. At this time we have not found a genetic link between Chaddocks and Shaddocks. I believe this is a case where two similar sounding names with completely different family genealogies have been confounded.
Possible Etymological Origin of the Family Name
There is corroborative evidence for a German derivation of the name. It is in the form of a scholarly book that was written in 1857 titled, "An Etymological Dictionary of Family and Christian Names. With an Essay on Their Derivation and Import" by William Arthur. He has an entry for the Shaddock name. Here it is on page 32:
SHADDOCK or SCHADECK. Local. The name of a lordship in Germany.
By "local" he means the name was derived from a place name.
Clifford R. Shaddick, in his 1950 Shaddick history, quotes from yet another source, the respected "British Family Names" by Henry Barber, published in 1894. Apparently Barber consulted twenty-seven genealogical sources in developing his list of British surnames. For Shaddick, his entry is:
Shaddick. G. Schadeck ; a p.n.
The initials "p.n." stand for "personal name," suggesting the name is not derived like many names (such as "Smith" as a derivation of "blacksmith") but rather it is simply a family name.
A search in a world database for surnames shows that in 2002 Schadeck is found in Luxembourg, Belgium, Germany, France and the U.S. in that order. There are less than 1,000 people with that surname worldwide. The Schadecks are found in the same area that our remote ancestors originated from. At the Geneat genealogical website, a search in the database of people who traced their ancestry back to Schadecks in the period before the 17th century turned up the following very interesting statistics:
Almost half the people with the Schadeck name are descended from ancient families in Switzerland, with as many descended from ancient families north of Switzerland in Luxembourg and Germany. There is no record of how English etymologists in the 19th century identified this surname as the probable antecedent of the Shaddock and Shaddick names, but the DNA evidence of our origins points to the exact same area.
A German friend sent me a map showing the distribution of the "Schadock" name in Germany. Micheal Konther says the densest area where the Schadock name is found is Brandenburg, close to Saxony.
The DNA evidence identifies Shattocke and our genetic cousins origins in the south of Germany with the hotspot in Switzerland, so an eastern Germany origin seems much less likely. A theory that suggest we have a common origin with modern German "Schadocks" perhaps shows how deceptive a similarity in the spelling and pronunciation of a surname can be. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that our ancient ancestors were a lot more mobile than we would prefer to think.
What DNA Tells Us About Our Origins
Vital records began sporadically in England after 1538 and were not in wide use until a century later. Many records have become lost, badly damaged or inaccurately transcribed. Our family was not sufficiently illustrious, notorious or royal to warrant mention in historical documents before vital records were kept. The only way we can look into the deep history of the family is to read the genetic code stored in our DNA, passed down from one generation to the next unchanged. Or almost unchanged. Tiny changes to the genetic code, one letter in the genetic alphabet, do occur, very rarely. These one letter mistakes (called SNPs) are faithfully copied to the next generation and all subsequent generations. They can be used as markers that define new branches in the human tree. For our family that SNP marker is called Y16884.
Y16884 branches off the dominant paternal lineage of Western Europe, R1b, also known as M343. Around 25,000 years ago our ancestors began a long migration to our ultimate home in the south of England. We carry the story of that migration in the male Y-chromosome members of our family.
The journey of our forefathers begins in eastern to southern Africa with genetic Adam. But I will begin my story further down the line, with the migration of our forefathers into Europe from the western Asia steppes. There we find an individual who lived sometime around 25,000 years ago who had the M343 SNP copying mistake in his genetic code. He is the oldest Eurasian grandfather in our family. He passed this change in his genetic code to his sons. And they passed it on to their sons. This means that in every male Shaddock, Shaddick, Shattuck or Shattocke and our genetic cousins, like the Parrishs and Byers or Byars, there is a tiny change in the genetic code of our DNA that sets us apart from billions of our fellow humans. Our family is descended from that man who had this single letter mistake, this marker of our shared ancestor.
As time passed new copying errors in the Y chromosome happened by chance and were passed from a descendant to his sons. The sons and their descendants carrying the new mutation became part of a new branch of the family, defined by the name of the SNP mutation. This is how we know the path of migration of our family's ancient grandfathers. We find in them in our chromosomes and in the telltale code changes in the remains of prehistoric men buried in the places along the route. And in many cases we find them in the descendants who remained when their relatives moved on. This is how we can reconstruct the migration route for our family beginning with M343 man in far off western Asia.
Enlarge the map to see where your so very distant relatives are buried. Each point where you see a letter code (like M269) is the site where your direct male ancestor lived, farmed, fought and moved on. The map tells the story of the migration up to 1200 BCE (before the common era). Look for U152 in the Alps north of modern day Italy. That is where your 125th great grandfather lived, worked and died.
We know that is where he settled in Europe because he had a descendant who had a new SNP variant, called Y16884. And that variant is what distinguishes us from other European males, our cousins, such as the L21 males who were the first to settle in England. If you are wondering if you are biologically a true Shaddock or Shaddick or Shattuck (or our genetic cousins with other surnames like Parrish or Byars) than you can actually purchase a test kit, swab your cheek, and send the test kit back. A few months later the DNA testing company will confirm or deny your membership in this wandering tribe of humanity.
So where was this ancient culture that we belonged to? We belonged to a tribe in central Europe, defined by modern day eastern France, Switzerland, Austria, southwest Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. For our specific ancestors "home" was probably Switzerland. Broadly described he was a Celt, speaking a form of the Celtic language. More precisely he belonged to what ethnographers call the La Tène (lä-ˈten) culture, named after an archaeological site on the shores of a lake in Switzerland where artifacts created by these people were found. The La Tène elite power structure arose at the fringes of the early Iron Age Halstatt elite power structure, which collapsed between 450 and 400 BC. Where the Halstatt lived in fortified enclosures on hill sides, La Tène people lived in small, dispersed, self-sufficient settlements in the valleys and plains below.
Reconstruction of the house your 93rd great-grandfather lived in.
By the 4th century BC the La Tène had become over-populated. They developed a warlike culture where warriors became the elite members of a society that was otherwise not stratified like the earlier Halstatt culture. They began raiding the rich Mediterranean communities they found south and east of them. They were considered barbarians by the Roman and Greek classical cultures. They were heavily influenced by Mediterranean culture, and the Celtic culture north of the English channel. This map shows the original extent of the Hallstatt culture in yellow and expansion of the La Tène culture in green.
The growing power of Rome and the constant state of war that La Tène brought upon themselves, along with increasing social stratification, eventually led to their decline and defeat at the hands of the Romans by the first century BC. Some scholars even suggest their love of wine and feasting made them too fat and contented to live up to their warrior ideals.
The take-away from all this is that we do not belong to the tribes that inhabited southern Europe or northern Europe. We do not descend from the Vikings or the Angles or Saxons. We are La Tène Celts. If you are a Shaddock, Shaddick, Shattuck or a closely related genetic cousin (Paris, Parrish, Byars, Byers), have you been calling yourself an Anglo-Saxon all these years? You are not. Call yourself a Celt or more precisely La Tène. (Sounds like "La Ten.")
Parrishs (and Byars or Byas)
In Shaddocks, Shaddicks and Shattucks who have been Y-DNA tested, numerous individuals with the surnames "Parrish, Byers, Byars and Byas" show up as matches, meaning they are closely related to our family. By "closely" I mean in the past 600 years. They are our very distant cousins, people we are more closely related to than all the other human beings on the planet. Advanced SNP testing has shown we share a common ancestor with them who lived about 1330 AD. And it appears the Parrish ancestor split off from the Shattockes about 1585 AD. We do not have next generation SNP results for Byas or Byars and its variants, but the evidence so far is that they branched off of Parrishs.
The YFull SNP interpretation service has assigned the Parrishs who have tested to the subclade R-Y16884, called R-A8033. It is important to note that the date of formation of this subclade (1585 AD) is estimated from Parrishs who have tested so far. If additional Parrishs or Byars do SNP testing that date will become more accurate.
I should make clear that only a small number of people with the surname "Byas, Byers, Byars or Parrish" are our genetic cousins. The majority of their descendants actually come from a mixed background, meaning they are not genetic cousins. The Parrish surname arose from genetically unrelated people from different regions of England and France, who adopted the Paris or Parrish surname. The Parrish and Byars descendants who are our genetic cousins have the Y16884 mutation.
My best guess is that the Parrishs came from a NPE event in west Somerset. This guess is based on the fact they are a very old branch, and an examination of their DNA results shows that they are most closely related to West Somerset Shattocks.
All Y16884 Parrishs have a unique genetic signature. They have 13 repeats for their DYS444 STR marker. This suggests a single common ancestor for all Parrishs and Byars or Byas descendants.
You can download a Phylogenetic Tree of the Parrish family here.
The Rarity of the Shattocke Name and Its Variants
I did a study of the 1891 England Census. Using a family household as my basic unit, I counted how many Shaddicks, Shaddocks or other variant surname households there were in England in that year. There were 71 households in the entire England. Here are the tabulated results:
The surprise is that there were only 71 households in England. We know that a huge number of the families dispersed around the world from the 17th through the 19th century, particularly to North America and Australia. The largest number of households were in Devon, with 21 households, followed by London with 18, and 7 households in each of Dorset and Somerset. Fifty-four or just over three quarters of the family lived south of London, even after the industrial revolution in farming made farm laborers and cottage workers leave largely agricultural Devon and Somerset, literally for greener pastures in the new world. A study of earlier census records showed that Londoners who said they were born in London were from families that had relatively recently migrated from Devon or Somerset. Indeed there are Shaddock households in Yorkshire that originated from Burrington, my own branch of the family's departure point for Canada.
On following The Diaspora page of this site, I present a table that shows just how rare the Shattocke name, including its variants really are. A study at the University College London (UCL) shows that there were about 11,500 descendants of Shattockes in 2005. That is .00000017% of the world's population of 6.49 billion people.
Is there an explanation for the rarity of the surname and the lack of a wide number of genetic cousins like the Parrishs and Byers? I decided to look elsewhere for an explanation. I researched populations dynamics between 1330 AD and 1550 AD. Here is what I found:
Pre-industrial populations had low reproductive capacities.
- 20 percent of couples would have no children surviving them
- 20 percent would have only daughters surviving them
- 60 percent would have one son survive them
Estimates of the average family size is between 3.5 and 4.5. The consensus is that the smaller size was more probable. The practice of legal “maintenance agreements, “ where a couple beyond their reproductive years contracted with another person to look after them until their death in exchange for property rights yields an interesting statistic. Over half the agreements were with people unrelated to the retired peasants. This suggests over half of peasants had no surviving children.
This rate probably improved in the 12th and 13th century but in the early 14th century famines and diseases swept through the English countryside. The earliest recorded incidence of the bubonic plague was in 1348 in Dorset from an immigrant from Gascony. Dorset is next door to Somerset and Devon where our family originated. Estimates of mortality are 50% in the first wave of the plague and 20% in the decades that followed for a cumulative total of 60%. Two out of three people who would have descended from our common ancestor were wiped out.
I have not done the math for the expected expansion of the number of descendants from that couple who gave birth to the common ancestor between Shattockes, Parrishs and possibly Byars / Byers, but this might explain why our DNA results only show three groups of surnames, Shattockes, Parrishs and Byars / Byers. And it might explain why there are so few Shattockes in the early records. Finally it might explain why I have been having success recently connecting far-flung branches of the Shattocke families together using both genealogical and genetic research tools. I did explore an hypothesis that an immigrant family arrived in Devon / Somerset in the 15th or 16th century. But now it seems YFULL (the SNP interpretation service) analysis of the SNP evidence and my own analysis of the STR evidence is pointing to another immigrant to southern England whose presence explains the low number of Shattockes and our Parrish cousins in the world. That immigrant was was a seaman who arrived at Weymouth, Dorset, from Gascony in June 1348. He was carrying the bubonic plague.
Here is something else to consider. The ancient form of the name, either "Shattocke" or "Shatticke," does not appear to be descriptive and cannot be traced by etymology to a place, occupation or other obvious human feature or activity, or a feature or activity of the natural world. Almost all etymologists consider it to be or German origin. We come from a very specific place, Devon and Somerset. So while the theory of a recent (i.e. around 1330 AD) immigration of a "Shattocke" family to England might is still plausible. However if it is not be the case, perhaps it can be said that the Shattockes that carry the name down to the present are members of a single founding family around the 14th century. And we are the handful of survivors of black plagues, of English civil war, of religious persecution, of crop failures and economic turbulence. Aren't we lucky to have such a rare and unique last name? It makes the job of re-establishing the family's shared history so much easier than names like Smith or London.
On the following page of this site, The Diaspora
, I discuss the modern distribution of the family throughout the world.
Immigrants to England
There is additional evidence for a migration of a single family into Devon from our ancestral grounds. It comes from the analysis of the Devon DNA Project results at FTDNA (the testing company Family Tree DNA). The Devon DNA project is focused on surnames of people who have ancestors who lived in the county of Devon, England. There are 515 members of the Devon DNA project. I did a study of the frequency of the subclade we belong to, Z36, among Devon descendants. Among that group, only one individual could be
identified as a Z36 descendant. Myself. See the study here.
I have not been able to make the same study of Somerset descendants. But if there was an ancient influx of Z36 people, our ancestors included, into the west country of England, you would expect to find their genetic signature among Devon descendants.
The next chapter of our story unfolds on the next page. A majority of the descendants of the Shattocke Celts who arrived in England to participate in the wool and cloth industry would find themselves uprooted again by social and economic forces and scattered almost literally to the four corners of the earth. I call it The Diaspora.