Ancient German Origins of Shattockes
What You Will Find Here
This website organizes research I have done into the Shattocke ancestral family, including such name variants as Shattock, Shattuck, Shaddick, Shaddock, Shadduck and so on.
- This "Celtic Origin" page explores the family's deep history, all the way back to 1500 BC.
- The "English Heritage" page picks up the story at the end of the medieval period, using the genealogical record of our family in the West Country in England.
- The "Diaspora" page describes the emigration of a major portion of the family to the British colonies due to economic and technological forces in the 17th to 20th centuries.
- You can explore branches of the worldwide family tree under the "Branches" menu.
- You may be interested in participating in our DNA research. The story of the family is hidden in your genes. See the DNA Testing page. Contact me.
Use the search function at the top of the page to find a specific reference.
Note: When I am referring to the entire family I will use "Shattocke" as a generic reference to all the different spellings of the name found in the records, like Shattock, Shattuck, Shaddock, Shaddick, Shadduck and so on.
The Shattocke Family Tree
Here is a snapshot of the state of the research to date. Click on the tree to enlarge it.
The graphic shows our descent from the La Téne Celts and our common ancestor in England. The diagram shows how we branched from our common ancestor in the 16th century.
Celtic costumes typical in the Celtic La Tène culture, 3rd century BC. Wikipedia image.
Genetically, we sprout from a branch of the human tree named after a mutation we all share: Z36. This is solid proof that we descend from La Tène Celts who originate from central Europe.
All Shattockes and our genetic cousins the Parrishs and Byars descend from a common ancestor in the 14th century, who fathered a new branch of Z36 called Y16884. If you have the Y16884 mutation you are a descendant of this common ancestor.
A study of the early English parish records in the 16th century indicates that Shattockes are found in the villages in an area of about 130 square miles (335 square kilometers) in west Somerset and in the village of North Molton on the border of Devon and Somerset. See the English Heritage
page for an extensive exploration of the Shattocke English homeland.
In my studies of Shattocke descendants over time and around the world, I have discovered that the single factor that has led to Shattocke "population explosions," like the massive growth of the Shattuck branch of the family in America, was the availability of land for homesteading. Only 13% of the entire modern population of Shattockes now live in England. There was a massive diaspora of Shattockes from England seeking land in the colonies to establish their families. We were farmers and land ownership was the key factor leading to the establishment of major branches of the family. We were also merchants and tradespeople. The early west Somerset branches of the family and London branches of the family features entrepreneurs, trades people and merchants. Some rose to high social rank in England and the colonies.
If you look at the above family tree constructed out of DNA data from tested descendants, you will see that there are four major branches of the family, with a possible fifth in the Staplegrove Shattocks.
These branches formed in West Somerset and North Molton in the 16th century.
West Somerset "Shattocks" spell their name closest to the one we first find in the records.
Robert Walter Weir - the embarkation of the pilgrims
The Massachusetts Shattucks
are the most numerous Shattockes in the world, about 8,000 strong out of a total Shattocke population of 13,000. They share a common ancestor with the Southwark, London Shattocks
, who originally came from Somerset. DNA studies have so far confirmed Massachusetts Shattocks are descended from a single individual, William Shattuck (ca. 1622-1672). The evidence also indicates a very large southern population of Shattockes, the South Carolina Shaddocks
, also descend from William Shattuck. The Massachusetts Shattucks may share a common ancestor with the North Molton Shattockes.
Shaddocks who originally settled in Virginia, and now are found throughout the U.S. south, have been shown to be related to west Somerset Shattocks in Milverton and Wellington. See the Virginia Shaddocks
and the Milverton Shattocks
When records began in the early 16th century, "Shattickes" are found in North Molton, a border village with a thriving wool industry. See the North Molton
page for a study I made of the history of North Molton and its place in the wool industry. Subsequently they spread south, occupying north Devon and branching off to the Yarnscombe Shattockes
and its sub-branches the New Brunswick Shaddicks
, the Tawstock Shaddocks
, and the Burrington Shaddocks
. Another branch of the North Molton Shattockes are the Fremington Shaddicks
. While the earliest settlements in America appear to have been west Somerset Shattocks, later emigrations to Canada, Australia and New Zealand included Shaddocks and Shaddicks from Devon.
The village of Culmstock is just at the border of Somerset in the north east of Devon. It seems likely the village became inhabited by Shattockes from Somerset, although this statement waits for genealogical or genetic proof. A major branch of the Culmstock Shaddocks
is descended from a female Shattocke. It is possible, but so far not proven, that the Birmingham Shaddocks
are a branch of the Culmstock Shaddocks, possibly the lineage descending from the female Shattocke.
There are other branches of the Shattocke family whose attachment to the family tree is unknown at this point because we have not found a descendant who we can DNA test, like the Mourambine, Australia Shaddicks
That is the summary of the research so far. For the rest of this page I will go deep into the details of our ancient origin.
This graphic was discovered by Ken Shattock, a Staplegrove Shattock descendant, in the main library in London attached to the Shattock name. It was described as a "Dexter Hand Holding a Lion's Gamb." Translation: right hand holding a lion's leg or shank."
Vital records began sporadically in England after 1538 and were not in wide use until a century later. Many records have become lost, badly damaged or inaccurately transcribed. Our family was not sufficiently illustrious, notorious or royal to warrant mention in historical documents before vital records were kept. The only way we can look into the deep history of the family is to read the genetic code stored in our DNA, passed down from one generation to the next unchanged. Or almost unchanged. Tiny changes to the genetic code, one letter in the genetic alphabet, do occur, very rarely. These one letter mistakes (called SNPs) are faithfully copied to the next generation and all subsequent generations. They can be used as markers that define new branches in the human tree. For our family that SNP marker is called Y16884.
Y16884 branches off the dominant paternal lineage of Western Europe, R1b, also known as M343. Around 200,000 years ago our ancestors began a long migration that ended up in our ancestral home in the south of England, before more recently emigrating to the former English colonies. We carry the story of that migration in the male Y-chromosome members of our family.
The journey of our forefathers begins in eastern Africa with genetic Adam. I pick up the story further down the line, with the migration of our forefathers into Europe from the western Asia steppes. There we find an individual who lived sometime around 25,000 years ago who had the R SNP copying mistake in his genetic code. He is the oldest Eurasian grandfather in our family. He passed this change in his genetic code to his sons. And they passed it on to their sons. This means that in every male Shaddock, Shaddick, Shattuck or Shattocke and our genetic cousins, like the Parrishs and Byers or Byars, there is a tiny change in the genetic code of our DNA that sets us apart from billions of our fellow humans. Our family is descended from that man who had this single letter mistake, this marker of our shared ancestor.
As time passed new copying errors in the Y chromosome happened by chance and were passed from a descendant to his sons. The sons and their descendants carrying the new mutation became part of a new branch of the family, defined by the name of the SNP mutation. This is how we know the path of migration of our family's ancient grandfathers. We find in them in our chromosomes and in the telltale code changes in the remains of prehistoric men buried in the places along the route. And in many cases we find them in the descendants who remained when their relatives moved on. This is how we can reconstruct the migration route for our family beginning in East Africa with "Genetic Adam."
Modern man arrived in central Europe about 4000-4500 years ago (U152 on the map). We are a branch of U152 called Z36. It was in the German and Swiss Alps north of modern day Italy. That is where your 125th great grandfather lived, worked and died. In the early 14th century we find the common ancestor of all Shattockes and Parrishs / Byars in England.
The following phylogenetic tree is our ancient family tree from the time our ancestors arrived in central Europe (U152, also called S28, sometime between 4000 and 4500 years ago). Click on the image to see a larger version.
I have circled in blue our common ancestor, Y16884. What I find very interesting is that our branch is surrounded by continental Europeans. If you follow the tree up to the more distant ancestor, Z36, you will see where his descendants migrated to in the last three or four millennia. Tibor Feher, who is a descendant of the Z36 ancestor, collated research and discovered that .4 to .5 % of the population of the three countries England, Scotland and Norway are descended from Z36 La Tène Celts. (Less than 1/2 percent.) That is pretty strong evidence that only a very small number of La Tène Celt cousins made it to England. We are on the extreme edge of the La Tène expansion from its home base in the German / Swiss Alps.
At the top of the graphic, U152 (aka S28) is an older ancestor that migrated from the Asian steppes to central Europe. We are are a part of a branch of U152 / S28 that migrated north and west from central Europe rather than east and south. Missing from the diagram is the very large "L2" branch, much larger than our Z36 La Tène Celt branch, and on the Italic branch of U152 descendants. That makes Z36 a relatively small branch by comparison. So the migration path of our ancestors to the north and west of central Europe makes it more likely that we arrived in England from Belgium and points north and not France or Italy and points south. That strengthens the theory that we were immigrant weavers, perhaps not Flemish but possibly German weavers from the same area.
If you are wondering if you are biologically a true Shaddock or Shaddick or Shattuck (or our genetic cousins with other surnames like Parrish or Byars) than you can actually purchase a test kit, swab your cheek, and send the test kit back. A few months later the DNA testing company will confirm or deny your membership in this wandering tribe of humanity.
So where was this ancient culture that we belonged to? We belonged to a tribe in central Europe, defined by modern day eastern France, Switzerland, Austria, southwest Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. For our specific ancestors "home" was probably Switzerland. Broadly described he was a Celt, speaking a form of the Celtic language. More precisely he belonged to what ethnographers call the La Tène (lä-ˈten) culture, named after an archaeological site on the shores of a lake in Switzerland where artifacts created by these people were found. The La Tène elite power structure arose at the fringes of the early Iron Age Halstatt elite power structure, which collapsed between 450 and 400 BC. Where the Halstatt lived in fortified enclosures on hill sides, La Tène people lived in small, dispersed, self-sufficient settlements in the valleys and plains below.
Reconstruction of the house your 93rd great-grandfather lived in.
By the 4th century BC the La Tène had become over-populated. They developed a warlike culture where warriors became the elite members of a society that was otherwise not stratified like the earlier Halstatt culture. They began raiding the rich Mediterranean communities they found south and east of them. They were considered barbarians by the Roman and Greek classical cultures. They were heavily influenced by Mediterranean culture, and the Celtic culture north of the English channel.
The growing power of Rome and the constant state of war that La Tène brought upon themselves, along with increasing social stratification, eventually led to their decline and defeat at the hands of the Romans by the first century BC. Some scholars even suggest their love of wine and feasting made them too fat and contented to live up to their warrior ideals.
The take-away from all this is that we do not belong to the tribes that inhabited southern Europe or northern Europe. We do not descend from the Vikings or the Angles or Saxons. We are descendants of the La Tène Celts who expanded from their original home in the German-Swiss Alps. If you are a Shaddock, Shaddick, Shattuck or a closely related genetic cousin (Paris, Parrish, Byars, Byers), have you been calling yourself an Anglo-Saxon all these years? You are not. Call yourself a Celt or more precisely La Tène. (Sounds like "La Ten.")
Celts in England
We know that all Shattockes in the world migrated from a very small area of west Somerset, England. Somerset has both Celtic as well as Saxons place names. Are we descendants of the Celts of Somerset? Probably not. They are likely to have migrated to England from France or south of France in Spain. In recent years it has become clear that most Britons actually descend from the ancient peoples who began arriving on the island just a few centuries after the last ice age, not the Celts as was long believed. The story previously had been that the ancient indigenous peoples of Britain and Ireland had been pushed out by invading Celts. But DNA and archaeological studies have shown this was simply not the case. Celtic culture and language did spread to Britain and Ireland, but not as a result of the sword but rather through ancient trade routes. If the remains of Volkswagens are dug up a thousand years from now in England, this will not be proof that the Germans invaded, but rather that their cars were exported to England.
There is also a theory that Celtic culture might have been an Atlantic seaboard (from the west coast of Spain to the west coast of England and Ireland) phenomenon.
The Celts of Somerset belonged to the Durotriges confederation, who dated from the British Iron Age (800 BC) until the arrival of the Romans (43 AD). We belong to La Tène Celts whose culture existed from 500 BC to 1 BC. They migrated to England beginning in 500 BC, but it is not clear to what extent they had a presence in England. The DNA results indicate that very few did. The consensus is that they migrated to England in small numbers, perhaps in the north of England. There apparently is little or no evidence of them in the south.
Migrations of La Tène Celts from their homeland into England
What makes it doubtful that we are descended from these early migrations of La Tène Celts into England is the DNA evidence. On the family tree maintained by YFull
, the nearest branch to us, A7993, shares a common ancestor with us more than 4200 years ago or about 2200 BC. Almost all of the descendants of the other branches of La Tène Celts
live in Europe. That puts the nearest relatives to our common ancestor, Y16884, in Europe and not England.
The Celtic names of places in Somerset are not necessarily due to Celts who were immigrants to Somerset, they may be due to the spread of Celtic language and culture due to ancient trading patterns.
Additional evidence that we are not descended from the Celts of the south west of England can be found in the DNA results of descendants of Devon inhabitants. Of the 238 people of Devon heritage who have done advanced DNA testing there are only five of them that are Z36 La Tène Celts. They are five Shattockes. Our common ancestor Y16884 was descended from a different Celtic tribe than his Celtic neighbours.
The Earliest Shattocke Records
The Staplegrove Church (now in a suburb of Taunton) is said to contain two vaults with Shattocke remains dating from the early 16th century.
The oldest occurrence of the name I have found in paper records is Shattocke. It is a record of Thomas Shattocke, who appears as a tenant in a list for the Manor of Taunton Deane, the area of west Somerset, England spreading out from the town of Taunton. Here is what is important...the date of the list is 1450. He is said to have his farm in the area to the west and south of Taunton.
The Western Antiquary, Volume 4, edited by William Henry Kearley Wright (June 1884 – May 1885)
The Manor of Taunton Deane – Names of the Tenants in the year 1450
Thomas Shattocke is listed as a tenant in The Hundred of Hull (including the Tithing of Dipford, in the parish of Trull, Hull and Rumwell, in the parish of Bishop’s Hull, and North Trendle in the parish of Pitminster) (p. 216)
Apparently the original document is difficult to read, and cannot be verified "because the transcribed reading, by A. J. Munday of Taunton, is Thomas at ocke, with Shattock in square brackets as an editorial interpretation (for reasons not given). Mr Munday also doesn’t say what the MS source is or where it is deposited, so altogether he has left us with more questions than answers." (email from Peter McClure, Principal Etymologist,
Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain and Ireland).
The name does reappear in a will written in 1538 for John Shattockes, who had a son, "Thomas." It is possible he was named after the Thomas Shattocke in the 1450 tenant list.
"Thomas Shattock" is one of the first names to appear in the Taunton parish record, recording his burial April 18, 1559.
But we cannot say that Taunton or Staplegrove are the original home for Shattockes. By the beginning of parish records after 1538 there were a number of multi-generational Shattocke families in villages in west Somerset. All we can say for sure is that all Shattockes worldwide originate from a small area west of Taunton in the county of Somerset, England.
Another important record for Shattockes is found in the records for the "Court of Star Chamber."
Reference: STAC 2/26/51. Description: Court of Star
Chamber: Proceedings, Henry VIII. BUNDLE XXVI. PLAINTIFF: Charles Walgrave,
Richard Pollard, Robert Cheverell, and John Callard DEFENDANT: Alexander Shattock, Richard Shattock,
Thomas Smele, Thomas Bodye, Thomas Northe, and Christopher Mollyns PLACE OR
SUBJECT: Riot in the manor of Lydyard COUNTY:Wilts. Date: 22/04/1509-28/01/1547. Held by: The National Archives, Kew
The Star Chamber was a special court set up to try common people in a legal dispute with socially and politically powerful people to ensure their fair treatment.
Richard is a very common name among Shattockes. Alexander is not as common but shows up in the records of early Shattockes, like an Alexander Shattock who is a beneficiary in the will of John Wolcott c. 1547-1623 of Tolland, a miller, will dated 1623, “7 pence each to Richard Locke and Alexander Shattuck.” An educated guess is that Alexander and Richard Shattock were probably from West Bagborough, in Somerset, as there was a land-owning Shattocke family at this time in that village with those Christian names. It is possible that they were involved in a dispute about land that had traditionally been held in common (the commons) by farmers but had been gradually seized by powerful local gentry and converted to their private use. At this time the wool trade was burgeoning.
There is another case that was tried in the Star Chamber in 1570 that involved a Shattock.
17 November 1570 –
16 November 1571. Reference: STAC 5/S84/2. Description: Smale and Shattock v. White and others. Date: 13
Eliz. Held by: The National Archives, Kew
And a third case:
Reference: STAC 5/B6/28; Description: Bowne v Dibble, Quick,
Croker, Shattock. Date: Easter 36
Eliz; Held by: The National Archives, Kew; Date: 17 November 1593 – 16 November 1594
The fact that Shattocks showed up as either litigants or defendants in the Star Chamber adds evidence to the assertion that the Shattocks were a "prominent" family in the letters written by a descendant of the Staplegrove Shattocks, James William Shattock (1860-1948) to his son and a "Miss Shattock." See the Staplegrove Shattocks
The Etymological Evidence: Shatticke and Shattocke
If you do a web search for the origin of the name Shaddock, Shaddick or Shattock, you are told it comes from people who lived in Lancashire and Worcestershire with modern versions such as Chadwick, Shadwick or Chaddock and ancient forms as Chaddewyk or Cheddewic. But genealogical records firmly establish Shattockes in the English west country, primarily in the counties of Somerset and Devon. And DNA testing has shown they are not Anglo-Saxon but rather La Tène Celts who are found in Switzerland and southern Germany some 5000 years ago.
In the first edition of the authoritative Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain and Ireland, this confusion of the two name is repeated, albeit skeptically. On the basis of the DNA studies I and the project administrator for the Chaddock surname at Family Tree DNA (Philip Chaddock) have made, the Family Name in the United Kingdom Project will make it clear in the second edition of the Dictionary that Chaddock is not a variation of Shaddock or Shattock. Dr. Peter McClure, Principal Etymologist, has this to say about the Shattocke surname (in an email to me):
The etymology of Shaddock and Shattock remains a puzzle, partly because we have no certain instances of it in the medieval records, unless Saddok belongs with it, but the etymology of Saddok is also obscure. I agree with your website that a family involved in the woollen cloth industry could have arrived in SW England from Flanders in he 14th century, so it is worth looking for a Flemish surname origin. I’ve not been able to find one. I’m a aware of the continental surname Schadeck, which does exist in modern-day Belgium, and which may derive from Schadeck in Attert (Luxemburg) or Schadeck in Nassau (Germany), but there seems to be no evidence of it as a surname in medieval Flanders, and I’m not keen to offer it as a possible explanation of your name until there is evidence for an earlier Flemish usage.
I think that there is the possibility that the surname is an English locative name from a lost or unidentified place named in Middle English as *Shadok or *Shatok. This would be either from an unrecorded Old English *scēaduc ‘little boundary’, or from one of two Old English compounds scēad + āc ‘boundary oak’ or scēat + āc ‘corner oak’. A name of this type + Old English hyrst ‘wooded hill’ is possibly attested in the Kent place-name Shadoxhurst, recorded in the 13th century as Shattokeshurst, Sadhokesherst, and Chaddekesherst. You can see the evidence and explanations in V. Watts, Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names, at Shadoxhurst. I am going to put this tentative suggestion in the second edition of the Oxford dictionary.
If you quote this from shaddock.ca please acknowledge this as the source: Family Names in the United Kingdom Project, University of the West of England (unpublished research).
The research conducted by the Family Names in the United Kingdom Project must stand as the authoritative guide to the origins of the Shattocke name. Hopefully further DNA studies will give us guidance on the origin of the family. For example, it would be interesting to compare the genetic markers of a Belgium or German person with the Schadeck surname to a Shattock descendant. A close match would be good evidence of an immigrant German in the 14th century.
John Shattock, whose ancestors left west Somerset for Wales and the north of England in recent generations, has studied the Welsh language and Middle English, has done an interesting exercise in transliterating Shattocke into middle English. While his success in transliterating Shattocke into Middle English does not prove that Shattocke is a name that derived from Middle English rather than Early New High German, it does not rule it out either. In the end it will be DNA evidence that shows if Shattockes were German immigrants in the 14th century or descendants of ancient inhabitants of Somerset. For the time being, I will rely on the expert opinion of Peter McClure that both derivations are possible. In that context John's transliteration is very interesting. See it in the sub-page to this one.
What the DNA Evidence Says
I think the estimated date for the common ancestor of all Shattockes in the 14th century makes it more unlikely that the Shattocke name is Middle English. What if Dr. McClure's other suggestion, that the name is not a transliteration of a Middle English name but rather a transliteration of a German immigrant's name? McClure points to a close similarity between Shattock or Shattick (as it was commonly spelled in North Molton) and the name "Schadeck" found in modern Belgium, Germany and Switzerland.
The use of surnames in English is believed to have begun after the Norman invasion in 1066 when the Norman barons introduced the use of surnames, first among the ruling class and over time all the way down the social scale to free peasants or serfs as late as the 15th century. There are no records of a name like "*scēaduc" in medieval times. But if our ancestors were serfs or free peasants the appearance of our surname in records would be highly unlikely. We have to look elsewhere.
Where? DNA evidence of course. So far the DNA evidence is that Shattockes are not descended from the Britons who were the original inhabitants of England beginning a few centuries after the last ice age about 12,000 years ago. They are not descended from later invaders, including the Saxons who, according to John Shattock, made up about 40% of the population of Somerset. The Saxons belong to the L1 branch of the human family, a very distant branch from ours, from Scandinavia and further up the tree. We are not English Celts either. The Dumnonii of Devon are not our ancestors. Nor can we find a relative among the other English Celts. (This year genetic studies of ancient peoples in England is apparently going to be published. That will give us a clearer picture.) In fact we are the only Z36 Celts found among 238 modern descendants of Devon people.
The major branch of the human tree we belong to is called Z36, a mutation found among La Tène Celts who originated from Switzerland and spread out from there. But there is little evidence they crossed the channel to England before being defeated by the Romans. Of course it is possible the Romans brought La Tène Celts into England as slaves or mercenaries. Or trading networks could have brought them over from Gaul or Flanders.
Our branch of the La Tène Celts is called Y16884. The closest branch to ours, our closest relatives, are called A7993. If you look at the YFull YTree
you will see that Z36 descendants have beside their names the places where their oldest documented ancestor is found. The vast majority of the place names are in continental Europe. Here is a list I derived from a project at FTDNA. I have broken the list into two groups. There are people in the A7993 branch closest to ours and then there are the rest of Z36 descendants.
A7993 (our closest relatives)
Filippo Dondero, b. 1833, Santa Margherita Ligure R-A7993
Battista PANTEGHINI, Brescia, Lombardia R-A7993
Giuseppe Rigoni b.1803 Trasquera, VB, N. Piedmont R-A7993
John Cochenour. b. 1792, d. 1846 R-A7993
Schurch family of Sumiswald, Switzerland R-A7993
Andreas Heinrich Rupp b: 1876 Russia d: 1960 NE R-A7993
Laurence Strang, b.~1630, Shetland,UK R-A7993
Jesse Jefferson Perry b1874 AL d 1906 OK R-A7995
Z36 (the other more distant branches)
Jacob Dietrich b Mar 17, 1825 d June 26,1904
Andrea Suardi, abt 1020, Bergamo
Michael Abram, 1869-1960
Robt Ashby, 09-1796 - 09-1878
Robert Allan dob.c1816. dod.1885 Fermanagh, Ulster
Kasper Hunke, b.ca. 1700 Rokitnitz, Bohemia, CZ
Jakob Schär b.1754, Bern, Switzerland
John Tyson, born March, 1863 near Birmingham, Engl
Joh. Heinrich Winkelmann, 1762-1830, Wersen-Lotte
Agustin Arana, born c.1901 Tenamaxtlan,JAL,Mexico
Johannes Nicholaus Barthelmes, 1560 - 1620
Gaspar Font, 1782, Sant Feliu de Pallerols, Girona
Jost Krahenbuhl, Zaziwil, Canton Bern, Switzerland
Peter Young, b. ~1791 PA, d. 1845 Plymouth, PA
John Nimmo, b. 1715
Sandoval Flippo b. c. 1807 N. C., d.1884 AL
Johann Andreas Keller, b.1671, Bödigheim, Buchen
Hendricus Keller, b.1786, Amsterdam, Nederland
Randolph W. Winona b. 1834
Pierre Monnier, before 1600
George James Stevens b.1862-65 Oxfordshire d.1940
Caspar Konther, b.1634, Friedrichroda, Thuringia
Johan August Petzold, d. bef 11 Oct 1877 R-FGC6418
Peter Binggeli, b.1704, Switzerland d.1793 NC
Jacob Mosemann b 1795 Baden d 1876 Lanc Co, PA
John Binkley, b. 1700
Jacob Musselman b c1698, to Bucks Co, PA c1724
Abraham Strickler, 1693? Germany? - 1746? VA, USA
There are not too many English names or locations among them are there? Among the A7993 group there is one in Scotland and one in Alabama. But they share an ancestor with us 3500 years ago. "Perry" is a name believed to derive from a Welsh or English word for "Pear Tree." And Strang is believed to be derived from a Norman or French origin "etrange," meaning "foreign." Perhaps a Roman slave or mercenary? Scotland is where that name appears. So according to etymological evidence, even among the people in the branch closest to us, only one name appears to have its roots in ancient England.
Take a look at the Z36 list of our more remote relatives and you will see the vast majority of them have a decidedly non-English spelling and origin. What I am trying to do is understand why there is very, very little evidence of a more ancient relative to our common ancestor in England. Thirty-five hundred years separates us from our closest relatives in England, and he appears to be an English "foreigner" (etrange!).
The new estimate for our common ancestor, 1405, may cast doubt on the theory of a Flemish weaver immigrant, but it also casts doubt on the theory that our name is derived from a Middle English word or combination words for a location in England. There is no evidence that there was an ancestor earlier in England, although it can be argued they were wiped out by the plague, which reduced the population of England by 50% of some estimates after 1348. But you would still expect to see a common ancestor with another English surname sometime after 1500 BC. Instead the vast majority of our common ancestors with other Europeans appears to have descended from continental Europeans. And the Anglo-Saxon portion of English descendants are related to northern Germanic tribes or Scandinavian tribes, not the central Europe La Téne Celts.
On the other hand, why have we not discovered a branch closer to us outside of England? One possible answer is that more English speaking people outside of Europe have had their DNA tested than continental Europeans. There is actually a law against providing DNA tests to French citizens, for reasons I will let you guess. But our name suggests an ancestor from Germany, Switzerland or Belgium.
We are missing that crucial "missing link," a living descendant of a La Téne Celt who belongs to a branch much closer to us. Will he trace his ancestors to England or to France, Belgium or Switzeland? Someday that link will be found. Soon maybe, as the number of people doing DNA testing is increasing rapidly.
The Shattocke Diaspora and the Spelling of the Surname
The evolution of the spelling of the family name from its first appearance in the records (early 16th century) as Shattocke or Shatticke is a key to figuring out where the Shattockes come from. It is very powerful tool along with DNA in trying to fill in the gaps in the record and in trying to peer farther into the past then the records allow. My own experience confirms this. One was hearing Robert Shaddock on the phone from Alabama pronouncing his last name like "Shaddick." Another was hearing on the phone Terry Shattuck, who lives in Georgia, pronouncing his name like "Shaddock." A helpful resource in deciphering the variations in the Shattocke name (e.g. Shaddock, Shaddick, Shattuck, Shadduck) is "Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America" (Oxford University Press, 1989) by David Hackett Fischer. What we learn from Albion's Seed is that the New England twang has its roots in the dialects of the original colonists home in Somerset and East Anglia. To wit, the Somerset dialect transformed "o" into "u" hence Shattuck rather than Shattock. They would say "Zumerset" instead of "Somerset." The sharp Yankee twang preserves the "tt" in Shattock, hence Shattuck. Meanwhile the southern drawl of the Virginia colonists (derivative of the south west of England) softens the "tt" into "dd" and preservers the "o", hence Shaddock, instead of Shattuck or Shattock. In the past I have assumed that the spelling of names is more due to the way the name sounds in the dialect of the local area in England rather than simply a misspelling...and this proves to be true.
Apparently in the past, Somserset villages had different ways of pronouncing the name, which might give us a clue as to where the emigrants from Somerset who arrived in the colonies came from. John Shattock, a modern descendant of west Somerset Shattocks, who now lives in Leicester, but who often visits relatives in west Somerset, has this to say about the way the name is pronounced (in an email to me): "The dialect is very pronounced [in west Somerset] and varies almost from village to village, although probably less now than it did in time before radio and TV. The closer to Devon border the more likely the double “t” will be pronounced as a double “d”. Although my name is spelled Shattock it is likely to be pronounced Shaddock or Shattuck or Shadduck. My grandfather pronounced it as Shattuck but some of his brothers in the way that your name is spelled. My father pronounced it with the “tuck” ending. I do not live in Somerset so tend to say “tock” because it is easier to explain the spelling when asked because Shattock is a rare name within England and even today most with this name will be found in Somerset and London."
Record of the marriage of my ancestor Richard "Shattocke" to Agnes Strellin in 1659.
"Shattick" does not seem to have survived as a variant of the Shattock name as a scientific study between 2000-2005 (Onomaps) does not have a record of that surname.
The Shadduck Version
A version of the Shattuck name appears to be "Shadduck." DNA testing of at least one Shadduck descendant showed him to be a Shattuck descendant. The fact is the name occurs virtually exclusively in the U.S. The Onomaps study shows there were 885 people with this name variant in the U.S. and a small handful in Germany (3 or 4!).
The Chaddock Surname
According to Philip Chaddock (one letter removed from my name) who is an administrator of the DNA project for the FTDNA Chaddock project, the name probably derives from a medieval village, Chaddock, that once existed just west of modern day Manchester. The original spelling was Chaydok , with variants such as Chaidok, Chaydoke and Chaidoke, among others. It stabilized as Chaddock in the late 1600s.
Philip Chaddock has discovered Chaddocks belong to subclades U106 and U198. It is thought U106 people descend from Germanic tribes that inhabited what is modern day Denmark and northern Germany. They are part of a distinctly different migration of early peoples into Europe than Shattocke ancestors. This makes Philip Chaddock very different in his ancestral origin than Shattockes. The bottom line is that people who are descendants of Chaddocks and other variants in the north of England are not genetically related to West Somerset Shattockes who belong to the entirely different branch of the human family, Z36.
The Chadwick or Shadwick Surnames
The Chadwick and Shadwick surnames have sometimes been mixed up with Shattocke variants in places like Dorset or New England. The Instow and Frithelstock branches of the family have Shadwick variations and Lemuel Shattuck mentions Shadwick as a version of Shattuck. But DNA tests of descendants of Chadwicks or Shadwicks from English areas north like Lancashire have proven that their ancestors are not even remotely related to Shattockes of south western England. The mix up in names occurs especially often in places like New York state where incoming immigrants in colonial times, arriving with heavy accents, often had their names recorded incorrectly. In two different cases I have examined, one Shaddock was actually a Polish immigrant and the other was a Chadwick from Lancashire.
There are very early records of a surname "Saddok" in the patent rolls and various legal documents dating back to 1288 AD in the county of Berkshire. John, son of Richard Saddock is a tenant on the Stroud farm in the civil parish of Bray in the county of Berkshire in that year. There is a long history of the Saddok family in the county, with its most prominent member, Andrew Saddok, the rector of Whyte Waltham, a parish in Berkshire. He was apparently a man of property and wealth, as "Andrew Saddok and Richard Hanard owned an interest in the Earley Batholomew manor as of 1344 until 1355." The Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain and Ireland
lists Saddok as possible early form of Shattocke, although Saddok has an obscure origin. It is possible, and the earliest reference to the name happens to coincide with the estimated date when the common ancestor of all Shattockes lived. The name disappears from the records about the time Shattocke begins appearing in parish records in west Somerset. I have collected the references to the Saddok family in a subpage
of this one. One reference spells the name "Saddock." If Saddok or Saddock is an early form of the Shattocke name, then the proximity of the county of Berkshire to London might support the theory of an early immigrant to England from Europe, since London was a major entry point, and the family could have migrated in a south west direction.
There are tax records that show William and Barbarie Shaddock living in Berkshire in 1642 with four children born between 1628 and 1640. Samuel Shattuck married Mary Snell Jul 19, 1628 (Lemuel Shattuck reference). Elizabeth Shattuck died Dec. 31, 1636 (Lemuel Shattuck ref.). Thomas Shattock had a child John Shaddock Nov. 21, 1686 in Tilehurst, Berkshire. However the sparsity of the name Shaddock in Berkshire suggests this was not a major Shattocke county.
I found a few references to the Saddok name in contemporary sources. The surname apparently is Arabic in its modern form.
Captain Shaddock and The Forbidden Fruit
When was the first time you looked up "Shaddock" or "Shaddick" in the dictionary? If it was in the previous century you would have seen it was the name of a type of grapefruit whose parental seeds were brought to the West Indies by a Captain Philip Shaddock. However a couple of botany researchers published a paper in 1987 ( "Mystery of the forbidden fruit: Historical epilogue on the origin of the grapefruit, Citrus paradisi (Rutaceae) by J. Kumamoto et al.") that shows a paper trail back to the original spelling of the name, Chaddock, not Shaddock. It was also popularly known as the shattuck fruit, another variant name. The shaddock or shattuck fruit should have been called chaddock, or perhaps chaddocke or chadock, since these are other spellings of Captain Philip Chaddock's name!
Philip Chaddock's Y-DNA does not match any Shaddocks that have been tested against him. At this time we have not found a genetic link between Chaddocks and Shaddocks. I believe this is a case where two similar sounding names with completely different family genealogies have been confounded.
Possible Etymological Origin of the Family Name
There is corroborative evidence for a German derivation of the name. It is in the form of a scholarly book that was written in 1857 titled, "An Etymological Dictionary of Family and Christian Names. With an Essay on Their Derivation and Import" by William Arthur. He has an entry for the Shaddock name. Here it is on page 32:
SHADDOCK or SCHADECK. Local. The name of a lordship in Germany.
By "local" he means the name was derived from a place name.
Clifford R. Shaddick, in his 1950 Shaddick history, quotes from yet another source, the respected "British Family Names" by Henry Barber, published in 1894. Apparently Barber consulted twenty-seven genealogical sources in developing his list of British surnames. For Shaddick, his entry is:
Shaddick. G. Schadeck ; a p.n.
The initials "p.n." stand for "personal name," suggesting the name is not derived like many names (such as "Smith" as a derivation of "blacksmith") but rather it is simply a family name.
A search in a world database for surnames shows that in 2002 Schadeck is found in Luxembourg, Belgium, Germany, France and the U.S. in that order. There are less than 1,000 people with that surname worldwide. The Schadecks are found in the same area that our remote ancestors originated from. At the Geneat genealogical website, a search in the database of people who traced their ancestry back to Schadecks in the period before the 17th century turned up the following very interesting statistics:
Almost half the people with the Schadeck name are descended from ancient families in Switzerland, with as many descended from ancient families north of Switzerland in Luxembourg and Germany. There is no record of how English etymologists in the 19th century identified this surname as the probable antecedent of the Shaddock and Shaddick names, but the DNA evidence of our origins points to the exact same area.
A German friend sent me a map showing the distribution of the "Schadock" name in Germany. Micheal Konther says the densest area where the Schadock name is found is Brandenburg, close to Saxony.
The DNA evidence identifies Shattocke and our genetic cousins origins in the south of Germany with the hotspot in Switzerland, so an eastern Germany origin seems much less likely. A theory that suggest we have a common origin with modern German "Schadocks" perhaps shows how deceptive a similarity in the spelling and pronunciation of a surname can be. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that our ancient ancestors were a lot more mobile than we would prefer to think.
Parrishs (and Byars or Byas)
In Shaddocks, Shaddicks and Shattucks who have been Y-DNA tested, numerous individuals with the surnames "Parrish, Byers, Byars and Byas" show up as matches, meaning they are closely related to our family. By "closely" I mean in the past 600 years. They are our very distant cousins, people we are more closely related to than all the other human beings on the planet. Advanced SNP testing has shown we share a common ancestor with them who lived in the 14th century. And it appears the Parrish ancestor split off from the Shattockes about 1585 AD. We do not have next generation SNP results for Byas or Byars and its variants, but the evidence so far is that they branched off of Parrishs.
The YFull SNP interpretation service has assigned the Parrishs who have tested to the subclade R-Y16884, called R-A8033. It is important to note that the date of formation of this subclade (1585 AD) is estimated from Parrishs who have tested so far. If additional Parrishs or Byars do SNP testing that date will become more accurate.
I should make clear that only a small number of people with the surname "Byas, Byers, Byars or Parrish" are our genetic cousins. The majority of their descendants actually come from a mixed background, meaning they are not genetic cousins. The Parrish surname arose from genetically unrelated people from different regions of England and France, who adopted the Paris or Parrish surname. The Parrish and Byars descendants who are our genetic cousins have the Y16884 mutation.
My best guess is that the Parrishs came from a NPE event in west Somerset. This guess is based on the fact they are a very old branch, and an examination of their DNA results shows that they are most closely related to West Somerset Shattocks.
All Y16884 Parrishs have a unique genetic signature. They have 13 repeats for their DYS444 STR marker. This suggests a single common ancestor for all Parrishs and Byars or Byas descendants.
You can download a Phylogenetic Tree of the Parrish family here.
The next chapter of our story unfolds on the English Heritage page. Parish records, wills and other documents show that our family comes from a very small area in the English "west country." From there the principal branches of the family emigrated to Devon, London and to the English colonies.