Celtic Origin

Ancient Origin of Shattockes


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What You Will Find Here

This website organizes research I have done into the Shattocke ancestral family, including such name variants as Shattock, Shattuck, Shaddick, Shaddock, Shadduck and so on. 
  1. This "Celtic Origin" page explores the family's deep history, all the way back to 2400 BC. 
  2. The "English Heritage" page picks up the story at the end of the medieval period, using the genealogical record of our family in the West Country in England.
  3. The "Diaspora" page  describes the emigration of a major portion of the family to the British colonies due to economic and technological forces in the 17th to 20th centuries. 
  4. The "Famous" page chronicles the intersection of our ancestors with history in people and places. 
  5. You can explore branches of the worldwide family tree under the "Branches" menu. 
  6. You may be interested in participating in our DNA research. The story of our family is hidden in your genes. See the DNA Testing page. You may be eligible for free DNA testing. Contact me
  7. I have a picture repository at Instagram of Shattock villages in Somerset and Devon. 
Use the search function at the top of the page to find a specific reference. 

Note: When I am referring to the entire family I will use "Shattocke" as a generic reference to all the different spellings of the name found in the records, principally Shattock, Shattuck, Shaddock, Shaddick, and Shadduck.

The Shattocke Family Tree

Here is a snapshot of the state of the research to date. Click on the tree to enlarge it. This graphic is constantly updated.



The graphic shows our descent from the La Téne Celts (Z36) and our common ancestor (Y16884) at the end of the 14th century England. The diagram shows how we branched from our common ancestor in subsequent centuries.


Celtic costumes typical in the Celtic La Tène culture, 3rd century BC. Wikipedia image.

We are a wandering tribe that in very ancient time came out of the vast, treeless Pontic steppe stretching from the northern shores of the Black Sea as far east as the Caspian Sea. We eventually migrated to central Europe. Around about 4,500 years ago we were members of the fearsome La Tène Celts whose influence spread throughout Europe. It is most likely that a single West German speaking ancestor or his family emigrated to England in the late medieval period. 

The earliest records of Shattockes are found in the Somerset, England villages of Staplegrove (1450) and Stogumber (1454). A study of the early English parish records in the 16th century indicates that all Shattockes in England are found in the villages in an area of about 130 square miles (335 km2) in west Somerset and in the village of North Molton on the border of Devon and Somerset.

The evidence is that we were heavily involved in the wool trade, probably as weavers. When that industry declined we began leaving England in the late 18th century, settling in the English colonies. Today descendants are found primarily (87%) in the former colonies, from Massachusetts to California, from New Brunswick to British Columbia, from Western Australia to Queensland, in New Zealand, Singapore, South Africa, and we have ancestors buried in India. 


Shattock Coat of Arms. On page 430 of Fairbairn's book he describes the crest as "SHATTOCK, Wilts., in dexter's hand a lion's paw, erased, ppr. Pl. 94, cr. 13."

It appears our early success in wool and cloth led to land ownership and our wealth was a key factor leading to the establishment of major branches of the family. The early west Somerset branches of the family and London branches of the family features entrepreneurs, trades people and merchants. Some rose to high social rank in England and the colonies. There is a record of a "Sir" Thomas "Shottoke" in his mother's will of 1533 and a Sir John Shattock in a legal document dated 1570. Other Shattockes are addressed as "Sirs"  in documents found in the late 16th century. However there are no records of the granting of knighthood. There is some evidence that a branch of our family were knights. It is found in the Shattock Coat of Arms. It is found in the book "Fairbank's Crests of the Leading Families In Great Britain and Ireland" by James Fairbairn (New York, 1911) plate 94 crest 13. The hand rising from a rope-like wreath of twisted silk is very common in heraldry, and specifically the design of a curved rope of silk out of which a hand is rising, grasping an object. Apparently a wreath of silk was used on the helmet of a knight to fasten the coat of arms so that in battle he was not struck down by his fellow soldiers, mistaking him for the enemy. Of course if he was wearing such a coat of arms, it suggests he was a knight. At the very least this is evidence of the stature of our family back in the 16th century. Here is another oddity. It is attributed to a Wiltshire family of Shattocks. I have no records of Shattocks in Wiltshire...but then this crest may be very, very old. Although there is no royal blood in our lineage, members of our family did reach to the highest ranks of society in the past. 

Branches 

The family tree at the top of this page is based on DNA data found in living descendants. The data from over 60 descendants reveals that there are only six branches of the family that have survived since the 14th century. DNA analyse suggests some of these branches may have a more recent common ancestor. The small number of Shattockes in the world and the few number of branches supports the DNA evidence of a single founder born in the mid- to late 14th century. Additional evidence is how few Shattockes are found in parish, tax and protestation records in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Now let's look at the six branches we have discovered so far.


Robert Walter Weir - the embarkation of the pilgrims

The Massachusetts Shattucks are the most numerous Shattockes in the world, about 8,000 strong out of a total Shattocke population of 14,000 - 15,000. They share a common ancestor with the Southwark London Shattocks, who originally came from Somerset. DNA studies have so far confirmed Massachusetts Shattucks are descended from a single individual, William Shattuck (ca. 1622-1672). The evidence also indicates a very large southern population of Shattockes, the South Carolina Shaddocks, also descend from William Shattuck. 

When records began in the early 16th century, "Shattickes" are found in North Molton, a border village with a thriving wool industry and a mining industry.  See the North Molton page for a study I made of the history of North Molton. Subsequently North Molton Shattockes spread north and south, occupying north Devon and branching off to the Yarnscombe Shattockes and its sub-branches the New Brunswick Shaddicks, the Tawstock Shaddocks, and the Burrington Shaddocks. Another branch of the North Molton Shattockes are the Fremington Shaddicks.  While the earliest settlements in America appear to have been west Somerset Shattocks, later emigrations to Canada, Australia and New Zealand included Shaddocks and Shaddicks from Devon.

The village of Culmstock is just at the border of Somerset in the north east of Devon. It seems likely the village became inhabited by Shattockes from Somerset, although this statement waits for genealogical or genetic proof. A major branch of the Culmstock Shaddocks is descended from a female Shattocke. 

Direct descendants of west Somerset Shattocks who have recent ancestor there (19th century) form three branches of the family, the Milverton Shattockes, the Staplegrove Shattocks and the Bishop's Lydeard Shattocks. A James Shaddock, Quaker, from Milverton settled in Pennsylvania in 1686 and his descendants formed a branch in Virginia in the late 18th century. They now are found throughout the U.S. south. See the Virginia Shaddocks. There are also Shattocks from the Milverton branch who have settled in New Zealand and Australia.

There was a Shattocke present at the founding of three major colonies in America: the Massachusetts Bay colony (Massachusetts Shattucks), the Pennsylvania colony (Milverton Shattocks) and the Chesapeake Bay colony (Byars and Parrishs). Shaddocks and Shaddicks appear in the earliest Canadian English colonies.

There are other branches of the Shattocke family whose attachment to the family tree is unknown at this point because we have not found a descendant who we can DNA test, like the Mourambine Western Australia Shaddicks

There are branches that appear to be unrelated to us, such as the Birmingham Shaddocks. Possibly this branch descends from a female Shattocke or we have only tested a branch descending from an NPE (non parental event).

We know when Shattockes emigrated to the New World. But when did Shattocks arrive in England from continental Europe? For the answer to that question be have to go back deep into ancient history.

Ancient Origins

There is evidence that England hosted ancient humans as long ago as 700,000 years. However the last ice age drove out humans who retreated to what is modern Spain (the Iberian peninsula). It was not until 10,000 years ago that modern humans began to repopulate England, from the European continent. In a sense the story of migration of humans into the British Isles continues to this day, unabated. A recent study of the Bell Beaker Culture (Olalde et al., The Beaker Phenomenon And The Genomic Transformation Of Northwest EuropebioRxiv, Posted May 9, 2017) found that the local population in England was largely replaced during the period c. 2900 and 1800 BC by migrants who repopulated the island from southern Europe and from central Europe. Central Europeans were in turn migrants from the Asiatic steppes.  

How do we find the road map of our ancient origins? The only way we can look into the deep history of the family is to read the genetic code stored in Shattocke DNA, passed down from one generation to the next unchanged. Or almost unchanged. Tiny changes to the genetic code, one letter in the genetic alphabet, do occur, very rarely. These one letter mistakes (called SNPs) are faithfully copied to the next generation and all subsequent generations. They can be used as markers that define new branches in the human tree. For our family that SNP marker is called Y16884.  

Y16884 branches off the dominant paternal lineage of Western Europe, R1b, also known as M343. Around 200,000 years ago our ancestors began a long migration from Africa that ended up in in the south of England, before more recently emigrating to the former English colonies. We carry the story of that migration in genetic markers found in the male Y-chromosome members of our family. 

The journey of our forefathers begins in Africa with genetic Adam. You can see that journey from Africa to the Asiatic "Pontic" steppes in the diagram below. There we find an individual who lived sometime around 10,200 years ago on the steppe who had the "R" SNP copying mistake in his genetic code.  He is the oldest Eurasian grandfather in our family. He passed this change in his genetic code to his sons. And they passed it on to their sons. This means that in every male Shaddock, Shaddick, Shattuck or Shattocke and our genetic cousins, like the Parrishs and Byers or Byars, there is a tiny change in the genetic code of our DNA that sets us apart from billions of our fellow humans. Our family is descended from that man who had this single letter mistake, this marker of our shared ancestor. 


Migration path of our ancestors.

As time passed new copying errors in the Y chromosome happened by chance and were passed from a descendant to his sons. The sons and their descendants carrying the new mutation became part of a new branch of the family, defined by the name of the SNP mutation. This is how we know the path of migration of our family's ancient grandfathers. We find in them in our chromosomes and in the telltale code changes in the remains of prehistoric men buried in the places along the route. And in many cases we find them in the descendants who remained when their relatives moved on. This is how we can reconstruct the migration route for our family beginning in East Africa with "Genetic Adam."

Our steppe ancestors arrived in central Europe about 4000-4500 years ago (U152 on the map). We are a branch of U152 called Z36. Our Z36 ancestor lived in the German and Swiss Alps north of modern day Italy. That is where your 125th great grandfather lived, worked and died. In the 14th century we find the common ancestor Y16884 of all Shattockes and Parrishs / Byars in England. How he got there is still a mystery.

Our La Tène Ancestors

It may come as a surprise to you that your 125th grandfather was a Celt and not an Anglo Saxon. He belonged to a tribe in central Europe, defined by modern day eastern France, Switzerland, Austria, southwest Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. For our specific ancestors "home" was probably Switzerland. Broadly described he was a Celt, speaking a form of the Celtic language. More precisely he belonged to what ethnographers call the La Tène (lä-ˈten) culture, named after an archaeological site on the shores of a lake in Switzerland where artifacts created by these people were found.  The La Tène elite power structure arose at the fringes of the early Iron Age Halstatt elite power structure, which collapsed between 450 and 400 BC. Where the Halstatt lived in fortified enclosures on hill sides, La Tène people lived in small, dispersed, self-sufficient settlements in the valleys and plains below. 

Reconstruction of the house your 93rd great-grandfather lived in.

By the 4th century BC the La Tène had become over-populated. They developed a warlike culture where warriors became the elite members of a society that was otherwise not stratified like the earlier Halstatt culture. They began raiding the rich Mediterranean communities they found south and east of them. They were considered barbarians by the Roman and Greek classical cultures. Yet, through trading, they were heavily influenced by Mediterranean culture,  and the Celtic culture north of the English channel. 

The growing power of Rome and the constant state of war that La Tène brought upon themselves, along with increasing social stratification, eventually led to their decline and defeat at the hands of the Romans by the first century BC. Some scholars even suggest their love of wine and feasting made them too fat and contented to live up to their warrior ideals.

The take-away from all this is that we do not belong to the tribes that inhabited southern Europe or northern Europe. We do not descend from the Vikings or the Angles or Saxons. We are descendants of the La Tène Celts who expanded from their original home in the German-Swiss Alps and whose origin was the Pontic Steppe in Eurasia. If you are a Shaddock, Shaddick, Shattuck or a closely related genetic cousin (Paris, Parrish, Byars, Byers), have you been calling yourself an Anglo-Saxon all these years? You are not.  Call yourself a Celt or more precisely La Tène. (Sounds like "La Ten.") 

Tibor Feher, who is a descendant of the Z36 ancestor, collated research and discovered that .4 to .5 % of the population of the three countries England, Scotland and Norway are descended from Z36 La Tène Celts. (Less than 1/2 percent spread out over these three countries.) That is pretty strong evidence that only a very small number of our La Tène Celt cousins made it to England. We are on the extreme edge of the La Tène expansion from its home base in the German / Swiss Alps. And we were not part of a large invasion that displaced the local population in England. Although it can be argued that the black death, which by some estimates reduced the population of England by half in the late medieval period, might have wiped out Z36 descendants, but this seems unlikely as there is no evidence the black death disease was selective in its victims. 

A7993 Sister Branch to the Shattockes
Our La Tène Celt ancestor, Y36, lived about 2,400 years ago. A number of branches emanate from them. Click on the image to enlarge it.
You can see where the Shattockes sit within the family tree that emanates from our Z36 La Tène ancestor. There are five of them that have been identified, although there are many more.

One of them was Y16889, seen on the far left. He is the common ancestor of our branch, Y16884. Y16889 split into another branch, our closest relative, A7992 aka A7993. The Y16889 branch formed about 4300 years ago, two hundred years after Y36. For perspective, the Egyptians were building their earliest pyramids about that time. 

At the time of this writing A7993 has three branches that have been discovered, with two of the tree branches with descendants in the traditional homeland of the La Tène Celts. The third branch could have been an immigrant to the British Isles. Here is what is interesting. The two descendants of S44, the A7993 sub-branch found in Scotland and Ireland have as their most distant ancestors the surnames "Strang" and "Strong." These are names derived from the same etymological root as "stranger." It is thought "stranger" was a term for a foreign born resident in the medieval ages. The two S44 descendants were immigrants when they adopted their surnames sometime before 1400 AD.

There is no branch of our family found in England in the 4300 years prior to Y16884. Our English ancestor Y16884 suddenly makes his appearance in the genetic record early in the 15th century. What about the other four branches so far discovered emanating from Z36? If you look at the above diagram, you will see there is not a single ancestor born on the British Isles. With the exception of a branch in Scandinavia (A7983 / S8024) they are concentrated in central Europe, with the hot spot in Switzerland. Not a single British or Irish ancestor. 

The Medieval Immigrant Thesis

The fact that our common ancestor Y16884 has no ancestors in England prior to his birth in the middle of the 14th century suggests that we were medieval immigrants in England. 

However you might have noticed that we have to go back over four thousand years to find ancestors who are closest relatives. There is a huge gap in the genetic record. Why this huge gap? The scientific evidence I cite can be used for the counter argument against the late medieval immigrant thesis. The argument is that the plague, in dramatically reducing the population of England after 1348, created what is termed a "genetic bottleneck." Wikipedia: "A population bottleneck or genetic bottleneck is a sharp reduction in the size of a population due to environmental events (such as earthquakes, floods, fires, disease, or droughts) or human activities (such as genocide)." 

However, I would argue that the further you go back in time for a founding ancestor in England, the greater the chance more than one branch of the family would have survived the plague. The fact is there are 89 people (including 26 Shattockes / Parishs / Byars) who are living descendants of the La Tène Celts and have done NGS DNA testing. Twenty-six of them are descended from a Shattocke founder whose descendants originate from a tiny corner of south western England. Of the other 63, only one traces his origin back to England, somebody with the surname Stevens from Oxfordshire. The other 62 living descendants are largely found in central Europe, with a hot spot in German, Swiss, and the Italian Alps, the origin point of the Z36 La Tène Celts. I consider this evidence to make the immigrant thesis much more likely than the thesis of a genetic bottleneck. For a more detailed discussion of the medieval immigrant thesis, see this page. I have also written about the rarity of Z36 descendants in Devon.

Let's now turn to genealogical evidence to see if it supports the late medieval immigrant thesis.  

The Earliest Shattocke Records

There are records of similarly sounding names to Shattock that go back as far as 1180 A.D., cited in Christopher Chattock's Antiquities book and in other records that I have discovered in my research. See Possible Forms of the Name in the Medieval Period. But I am going to confine this section to the most certain occurrence of the surname in records: Shattocke.  

The oldest records of Shattockes find them living in Bishop's Hull (1450), just outside of Taunton in west Somerset and Stogumber (1454), further west. What makes the discovery of these old documents particularly important is that both documents spell the surname the same, "Shattocke." Since Y16884 was born about AD 1360 and came to age about 1380, Roger and Thomas Shattock must have been his grandchildren. 

Staplegrove Shattocks


The Staplegrove Church (now in a suburb of Taunton) is said to contain two vaults with Shattocke remains dating from the early 16th century.  
The oldest documented record of a Shattocke is found at the South West Heritage Centre in Norton Fitzwarren, Somerset. Document DD\SP/317,318 is an old record of tenants in the Manor of Taunton Deane, the old administrative district in Taunton and the surrounding area. There is a Thomas Shattocke who is listed as a tenant in Bishop's Hull, just a  mile and a half from Taunton, in 1450. He is perhaps the same Thomas Shattocke listed as a tenant in Nailsbourne, also just six miles from Bishop's Hull, in 1459. He is perhaps the same Thomas Shattocke in 1470 listed as a tenant in Staplegrove, just a mile south of Nailsbourne, now a suburb of Taunton. In 1483 he appears again in Staplegrove, along with a second Thomas Shattocke, presumably his son. This appears to be a single individual who moved from Bishop's Hull, to Nailsbourne and finally Staplegrove. There is a female Shattocke who appears in the tenants list during this period, a Johanna Shattocke in 1506 who is listed as a tenant in Bishop's Hill, perhaps his wife returning to her maternal home. Finally there is another female Shattocke, Alice Shattocke, who is a tenant in 1491 in Staplegrove. She may have been the wife of Thomas's son John. Subsequently there there is a rapid expansion of Shattockes in Staplegrove in the 16th century.  

The list of names in the document help stitch together a paper trail of Staplegrove ancestors. For the Staplegrove Shattocks, the 1533 will of John Shattock of Staplegrove is a cornerstone because it mentions the Staplegrove church and lists his children and wife. The names in the will match up with the names on the tenants list, suggesting that Thomas Shattocke of Bishop's Hull 1450 was John Shattock of Staplegrove's father.

chyd. of Peter and Paul in Taunton—Wells iiijd—d. Elsabeth xx nobbles—my son John all my yer [gear] in my shoppe as well as v [£] worth—Thomas my son vjd  xiijs  iiijd other he to have the mansion other [or] tenement the wh. I dyd dwell in—Jone my d. xls—hye crosse in the ch. of Stapulgrowe xxd—sepulker of the same ch. Xx d—Sir John Hykelege xijd—John Gune viijd.

Res.—Alice my wyff.
Overseer.—John Sauser.
Witn.—Thos. Smyth, Thos. Gymmose.
Prob. in eccl. Cath. Well., 29 Dec. 1533.


"Thomas Shattock" is one of the first names to appear in the Taunton parish record, recording his burial April 18, 1559.

It is likely that the Thomas Shattocke who is the first Shattocke to appear in the Staplegrove parish record was the son of John Shattock who he bequeathed his dwelling to him in the 1533 will.

Stogumber Shattocks and the Cloth Trade

Is Thomas Shattocke of Bishop's Hull the founder of the Shattocke family? There is actually another ancient record of a Shattocke in west Somerset, in the village of Stogumber further west of Taunton. In a talk given by Mary Siraut, editor of the Victoria County History of Somerset, in 2005 in Somerset, she tell us of the earliest evidence for the cloth trade in Stogumber. She found the reference in the Registers of Bishop Beckyngton, transcribed by the Somerset Record Society Vol 49, page 307: “The earliest evidence in fact dates from the fifteenth century when there was a fulling mill at Vexford, and there were several chapmen, (cloth dealers) working in the parish already.  In 1454 one Roger Shattock of Stogumber lost six dozen of white and russet cloths worth five marks when a Nettlecombe man broke into his home and made off with them." Roger Shattock was a dealer in cloth, in a village (Stogumber) at a crossroads between regional centers (Bridgwater and Taunton) and coastal ports (Watchet and Minehead). Or he might have traveled to London, which was engaged with trade with centers in the Rhine Valley. It is also possible that Roger or his immediate ancestors were not from Stogumber, but from a cloth center in Europe. The name Roger might support this theory. According to Wikipedia Roger: "is derived from the Old French personal names Roger and Rogier. These names are of Germanic origin, derived from the elements hrōd ("fame", "renown") and gār, gēr ("spear", "lance"). The name was introduced into England by the Normans. In Normandy, the Frankish name had been reinforced by the Old Norse cognate Hróðgeirr. The name introduced into England replaced the Old English cognate Hroðgar. Roger became a very common given name during the Middle Ages." 

The second oldest Shattocke reference makes Stogumber a possible home village for our common ancestor. And that looks likely based on the fact there are at least three families of Shattocks living in Stogumber in 1560 when parish records first recorded births, deaths and marriages in that small village, while there appears to be only one family in Staplegrove in the same period. (There is also a Thomas Shattocke family in North Molton, on the border with Somerset in north Devon.) What is particularly noteworthy is that it appears Roger Shattock was a merchant. That would have made him an important member of his community at a time when merchants held a lot of local power. At the time the wool trade was a major source of wealth for the kingdom and Stogumber lay at the crossroads between Taunton and Bridgwater in the interior and the ports of Watchet and Minehead on the coast. The "Wolcotts" of Tolland, major wool traders who operated out of the coastal ports and had business or family connections with Shattocks.  

This raises an interesting possibility. Was Roger Shattocke of Stogumber the son or grandson of the original German immigrant to England? Merchants by the nature of their occupation traveled and at the time there was major commerce with German merchants in the Rhine Valley. There is no definitive answer to that question. What does appear to be the case is that Roger Shattockes and Thomas Shattocke, either sons or grandsons of the founder of all Shattockes (Y16884) lived only 10 miles (15 km) apart in west Somerset around 1450. 

The Spelling of the Surname

The Normans brought the practice of using surnames to England among the nobility. The use of "bynames," such as "William the Conqueror" or his early byname "William the Bastard," was already in use before the Conquest. Many surnames evolved out of bynames. Johnson, for example is probably derived from the byname "son of John." As records began to be kept in the late 11th and early 12th centuries, the use of bynames to identify individuals gradually came into wide practice, although it is difficult to determine to what extent among the lower classes. One class of people does deserve special mention, merchants, because one of the earliest records of the Shattocke name identifies Roger Shattocke of Stogumber as a merchant in 1454. During the 12th century records of commercial transactions exploded in number and identifying merchants and land owning people with a byname became common practice.  The other earliest record of the Shattocke name was Thomas Shattocke, the land owning tenant of Taunton Deane in 1450.  Stogumber and Taunton are villages with large, multi-generational Shattocke families in the earliest records. Milverton in Somerset and North Molton are the other villages in the early records with large, multi-generational Shattocke families. All these villages were centers for the cloth trade and housed mostly weavers and other people involved in the wool and cloth trades. Thanks to Dr. Peter McClure, principal etymologist for the Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain and Ireland, for informing me in an email exchange about the history of surnames.

Etymological studies have long treated the Shattock name as having a German origin. Specifically it belongs to the medieval Low German branch of the Germanic languages. This is different than the Middle English Germanic variations, which evolved separately. In "An Etymological Dictionary of Family and Christian Names" by William Arthur (1857) he has the following entry for the Shaddock name (page 32):

SHADDOCK or SCHADECK. Local. The name of a lordship in Germany.

By "local" he means the name was derived from a place name. 

In "British Family Names" by Henry Barber (London, 1894) he apparently consulted twenty-seven genealogical sources in developing his list of British surnames. For Shaddick, his entry is:

                                                                        Shaddick. G. Schadeck ; a p.n. 

The initials "p.n." stand for "personal name," suggesting the name is not derived like many names (such as "Smith" as a derivation of "blacksmith") but rather it is simply a family name.  

For Shattock Barber has:

                                                                        Shattock. G. Schattke; a p.n. See Shaddick

For Shaddock he says, see Shaddick.

The oldest etymological dictionaries of British surnames thought Shattock, Shaddock and Shaddick derived from medieval Low German nor Middle English.

Urusula Ann Martin, a Dutch born professional genealogist specializing in Somerset genealogy (www.somersetgenealogy.uk.com) observes that Shattock or Shaddock have some obvious Dutch and German cognates. "Tuch is German for cloth and Doek is Dutch for cloth. Both would sound very much like 'tock' or 'dock.' "Shat" would mean "darling" or "valuable" in Dutch. "Schat" means treasure, as in "valuable." The 'Sc' from Dutch would be almost impossible for English speakers to pronounce. So the name could mean "valuable or expensive cloth." The Dutch word "Shaddeock" translate as "Shadow Cloth."

Interesting is that there is an old technique in weaving called the "Shadow Weave," a name given to fabrics in which the same alternating colors or groups of colors are used in both the warp and the weft.   

There is an alternative hypothesis for the origin of the Shattocke or Shaddock surname. Dr. Peter McClure, principal etymologist at the Family Names in the United Kingdom Project, University of England, has this to say about the Shattocke surname (in an email to me):

I think that there is the possibility that the surname is an English locative name from a lost or unidentified place named in Middle English as *Shadok or *Shatok. This would be either from an unrecorded Old English *scēaduc ‘little boundary’, or from one of two Old English compounds scēad + āc ‘boundary oak’ or scēat + āc ‘corner oak’. A name of this type + Old English hyrst ‘wooded hill’ is possibly attested in the Kent place-name Shadoxhurst, recorded in the 13th century as Shattokeshurst, Sadhokesherst, and Chaddekesherst. You can see the evidence and explanations in V. Watts, Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names, at Shadoxhurst. I am going to put this tentative suggestion in the second edition of the Oxford dictionary. 
Family Names in the United Kingdom Project, University of the West of England (unpublished research).

The problem with etymological studies of our name is that similar sounding surnames are confused with our own. In the case of the Oxford Dictionary of Family Names, Chaddock and Shaddock variations of the name are considered to have a common root. But DNA testing of northern England Chattocks and south western Shaddocks has proven that they are not remotely related. (See "Chaddocks" below.) The Dictionary will be corrected in its next edition.

The problem with the Shattock or Shaddock surname is that there no good evidence for identifying it either as a Middle English name or Low German name. Etymology is not going to provide a definitive answer to the question of whether Shattock was the name of a German medieval immigrant to England.

Variations of the Surname Shattocke

However, the variations in the spelling of the surname (e.g. Shattock, Shaddock, Shaddick, Shattuck, Shadduck) is a helpful tool in tracking the migrations of Shattockes in the modern period (after 1500 AD). The greatest diversity in the spelling of the surname is found in Amercia. A helpful resource in this regard  is "Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America" (Oxford University Press, 1989) by David Hackett Fischer. What we learn from Albion's Seed is that the New England twang has its roots in the dialects of the original colonists home in Somerset and East Anglia. To wit, the Somerset dialect transformed "o" into "u" hence Shattuck rather than Shattock. They would say "Zumerset" instead of "Somerset." The sharp Yankee twang preserves the "tt" in Shattock, hence Shattuck. Meanwhile the southern drawl of the Virginia colonists (derivative of the south west of England) softens the "tt" into "dd" and preservers the "o", hence Shaddock, instead of Shattuck or Shattock. In the past I have assumed that the spelling of names is more due to the way the name sounds in the dialect of the local area in England rather than simply a misspelling...and this proves to be true.

You also note a difference in the spelling of the surname between Somerset and Devon. The Shattocks who first migrated to Devon have their names spelled in the parish records as Shattocke or Shatticke. After the middle of the 17th century the spelling becomes Shaddock or Shaddick.

Record of the marriage of my ancestor Richard "Shattocke" to Agnes Strellin in 1659. But it is interesting to note that the Protestation Return in 1642 for Yarnscombe lists "Thomas Shaddock" as a resident of the village. So both versions of the name, Shattocke and Shaddock existed within decades of each other.

The Shattick Version

The earliest parish records in North Molton, Devon show "Shatticke" as the spelling of the surname. "Shattick" does not seem to have survived as a variant of the  Shattock name as a scientific study between 2000-2005  (Onomaps) does not have a record of that surname. However, it does survive down to the present in the form of "Shaddick."

The Shadduck Version

A version of the Shattuck name appears to be "Shadduck." DNA testing of at least one Shadduck descendant showed him to be a Shattuck descendant. The fact is the name occurs virtually exclusively in the U.S. The Onomaps study shows there were 885 people with this name variant in the U.S. and a small handful in Germany (3 or 4!).

The Chaddock Surname

The Chaddock surname is often confused with Shaddock, and perhaps nor surprising, never with Shattock. DNA tests show that Chaddocks are not related to Shattockes. The majority of Chaddocks belong to the branch of the human family called U198 which has ancient roots in England, formed long before surnames were used. People who descend from the U198 common ancestor have a variety of surnames like Norton, Lawrence, Shacklock and Chadick. Some people with the Chaddock surname belong to the FGC35559 branch of the human family, unrelated to the U198 Chaddocks or to Shattockes, which are Y16884. This suggests people with different genetic backgrounds adopted the name Chaddock when surnames were first adopted.  

According to Philip Chaddock (one letter removed from my name) who is an administrator of the DNA project for the FTDNA Chaddock project, the name probably derives from a medieval village, Chaddock, that once existed just west of modern day Manchester.  The original spelling was Chaydok , with variants such as Chaidok, Chaydoke and Chaidoke, among others. It stabilized as Chaddock in the late 1600s. There have been various attempts to link varitions, like Schattock or Schaddock to our name, but DNA evidence points to an origin of Shattockes in west Somerset and the first hard evidence of the spread of the family from west Somerset is to the south (Bampton in Devon) in the early 16th century. Not until the late 16th century is there a migration west and north to London. 

The Chadwick or Shadwick Surnames

There are no Shadwick projects at the FTDNA testing site. There are Chadwicks, and they appear to belong to a different branch of the human family than Shaddocks or Chaddocks: L21. Chadwicks are largely found in the north of England.

The Chadwick and Shadwick surnames have sometimes been mixed up with Shattocke variants in places like Dorset or New England. The Instow and Frithelstock branches of the family have Shadwick variations and Lemuel Shattuck mentions Shadwick as a version of Shattuck. The mix up in names occurs especially often in places like New York state where incoming immigrants in colonial times, arriving with heavy accents, often had their names recorded incorrectly. In two different cases I have examined, one Shaddock was actually a Polish immigrant and the other was a Chadwick from Lancashire.

Sadoc, Saddok and Shaddek

Although the DNA and genealogical information rules against, it is possible some day evidence of Shattocks in England before AD 1360 will turn up. In that spirit I have collected references to "Sadoc, Saddock and Shaddek" surnames in a sub-page of this one. Read it skeptically.

Captain Shaddock and The Forbidden Fruit

When was the first time you looked up "Shaddock" or "Shaddick" in the dictionary? If it was in the previous century you would have seen it was the name of a type of grapefruit whose parental seeds were brought to the West Indies by a Captain Philip Shaddock. However a couple of botany researchers published a paper in 1987 ( "Mystery of the forbidden fruit: Historical epilogue on the origin of the grapefruit, Citrus paradisi (Rutaceae) by J. Kumamoto et al.") that shows a paper trail back to the original spelling of the name, Chaddock, not Shaddock. It was also popularly known as the shattuck fruit, another variant name. The shaddock or shattuck fruit  should have been called chaddock, or perhaps chaddocke or chadock, since these are other spellings of Captain Philip Chaddock's name! 

See the narrative Captain Chaddocks and the Forbidden Fruit for the complete story.

As noted above, Shattockes and Chaddocks are completely different branches of the human family.


Parrishs (and Byars or Byas)
In Shaddocks, Shaddicks and Shattucks who have been Y-DNA tested, numerous individuals with the surnames "Parrish, Byers, Byars and Byas" show up as matches, meaning they are closely related to our family. By "closely" I mean in the past 600 years. They are our very distant cousins, people we are more closely related to than all the other human beings on the planet. Advanced SNP testing has shown we share a common ancestor with them who lived in the 15th century.  

The YFull SNP interpretation service has assigned the Parrishs and Byars are a subclade of Y16884 called A8033. This means that Byars and Parrishs have a common ancestor who branched off of Shattockes.  It is important to note that the date of formation of this subclade (about 1650) is estimated from Parrishs who have tested so far. If additional Parrishs or Byars do SNP testing that date will become more accurate.

I should make clear that only a small number of people with the surname "Byas, Byers, Byars or Parrish" are our genetic cousins. The majority of people who are not A8033 descendants but have the Parrish or Byars surnames actually come from a mixed background, meaning they come from different branches of the human family tree. In other words, other Parrish or Byars surnames arose from genetically unrelated people from different regions of England and France, who adopted the names. The Parrish and Byars descendants who are our genetic cousins have the A8033 mutation.

Genetic and genealogical evidence points to the Parrishs and Byars in our family arising from an NPE event in Virginia. Read the page I have devoted to this branch of the family.

The Story Continues

We Shattockes are a wandering horde, from Africa to Pontic Steppes. From the Pontic Steppes to the Alps of Central Europe. From there to England and from England to her colonies throughout the world. We are sole survivors. Our surname is one of the rarest on Earth and our founder in England, Y16884, appears to be the lone survivor of a branch of the La Tène Celts whose founder lived before most of the Egyptian pyramids were built. We were merchants, land owning squires and farmers. We were warriors, fighting in almost every English and North American war since the medieval ages. We originated as tenant farmers under feudal serfdom, freed ourselves and through our skill and ingenuity rose to great wealth and distinction, and continue to be so. 

The next chapter of our story unfolds on the English Heritage page. Parish records, wills and other documents show that our family comes from a very small area in the English "west country." From there the principal branches of the family emigrated to Devon, London and to the English colonies.