Celtic Origin

Ancient Origin of Shattockes


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What You Will Find Here

This website organizes research I have done into the Shattocke ancestral family, including such name variants as Shattock, Shattuck, Shaddick, Shaddock, Shadduck and so on. 
  1. This "Celtic Origin" page explores the family's deep history, all the way back to 1500 BC. 
  2. The "English Heritage" page picks up the story at the end of the medieval period, using the genealogical record of our family in the West Country in England.
  3. The "Diaspora" page  describes the emigration of a major portion of the family to the British colonies due to economic and technological forces in the 17th to 20th centuries. 
  4. The "Famous" page chronicles the intersection of our ancestors with history in people and places. 
  5. You can explore branches of the worldwide family tree under the "Branches" menu. 
  6. You may be interested in participating in our DNA research. The story of our family is hidden in your genes. See the DNA Testing page. You may be eligible for free DNA testing. Contact me
  7. I have a picture repository at Instagram of Shattock villages in Somerset and Devon. 
Use the search function at the top of the page to find a specific reference. 

Note: When I am referring to the entire family I will use "Shattocke" as a generic reference to all the different spellings of the name found in the records, principally Shattock, Shattuck, Shaddock, Shaddick, and Shadduck.

The Shattocke Family Tree

Here is a snapshot of the state of the research to date. Click on the tree to enlarge it.



The graphic shows our descent from the La Téne Celts (Z36) and our common ancestor (Y16884)  in 14th century England. The diagram shows how we branched from our common ancestor in subsequent centuries.


Celtic costumes typical in the Celtic La Tène culture, 3rd century BC. Wikipedia image.

We are a wandering tribe that in very ancient time came out of the vast, treeless Pontic steppe stretching from the northern shores of the Black Sea as far east as the Caspian Sea. We eventually migrated to central Europe. Around about 2400 we were members of the fearsome La Tène Celts whose influence spread throughout Europe. It is most likely that a single West German speaking ancestor or his family emigrated to England in the medieval period. Then our wandering forefathers early in the 17th century began leaving England and settling in the English colonies. Today descendants are found primarily (87%) in the former colonies, from Massachusetts to California, from New Brunswick to British Columbia. From Western Australia to Queensland. In New Zealand, Singapore, South Africa, and we have ancestors buried in India. 

All Shattockes, and our genetic cousins the Parrishs and Byars, descend from a single male in the 14th century, who fathered a new branch of the human family called Y16884, the name of the mutation he had. If you have the Y16884 mutation you are a descendant of this common ancestor. 

A study of the early English parish records in the 16th century indicates that all Shattockes in England are found in the villages in an area of about 130 square miles (335 km2) in west Somerset and in the village of North Molton on the border of Devon and Somerset. See the English Heritage page for an extensive exploration of the Shattocke English homeland.

In my studies of Shattocke descendants over time and around the world, I have discovered that the single factor that has led to Shattocke "population explosions," like the massive growth of the Shattuck branch of the family in America, was the availability of land for homesteading. Only 13% of the entire modern population of Shattockes now live in England. There was a massive diaspora of Shattockes from England seeking land in the colonies to establish their families. We were farmers and land ownership was the key factor leading to the establishment of major branches of the family. We were also merchants and tradespeople. The early west Somerset branches of the family and London branches of the family features entrepreneurs, trades people and merchants. Some rose to high social rank in England and the colonies. There is a record of a Sir Thomas "Shottoke" in his mother's will of 1533 and a Sir John Shattock in a legal document dated 1570. Other Shattockes are addressed as "Sirs"  in documents found in the late 16th century. However there is no records of the granting of knighthood. Although there is no royal blood in our lineage, members of our family did reach to the highest ranks of society in the 16th century and the 19th century. 

Branches 

The family tree at the top of this page is based on DNA data found in living descendants. The data from over 60 descendants reveals that there are only six branches of the family that have survived since the 14th century. It is possible there is more, but the small number of Shattockes in the world and the few number of branches supports the DNA evidence of a single founder in the late medieval age. Additional evidence is how few Shattockes are found in the list of tenants for the Manor of Taunton Deane from 1450 AD.

DNA testing shows definitively we are all descended from a man with the Y16884 mutation in the 14th century. 

Now let's look at the six branches we have discovered so far.


Robert Walter Weir - the embarkation of the pilgrims

The Massachusetts Shattucks are the most numerous Shattockes in the world, about 8,000 strong out of a total Shattocke population of 13,000. They share a common ancestor with the Southwark London Shattocks, who originally came from Somerset. DNA studies have so far confirmed Massachusetts Shattucks are descended from a single individual, William Shattuck (ca. 1622-1672). The evidence also indicates a very large southern population of Shattockes, the South Carolina Shaddocks, also descend from William Shattuck. 

When records began in the early 16th century, "Shattickes" are found in North Molton, a border village with a thriving wool industry and a mining industry.  See the North Molton page for a study I made of the history of North Molton and a theory promoted by one of our ancestors that it was the original home of all Shattockes. Subsequently North Molton Shattockes spread north and south, occupying north Devon and branching off to the Yarnscombe Shattockes and its sub-branches the New Brunswick Shaddicks, the Tawstock Shaddocks, and the Burrington Shaddocks. Another branch of the North Molton Shattockes are the Fremington Shaddicks.  While the earliest settlements in America appear to have been west Somerset Shattocks, later emigrations to Canada, Australia and New Zealand included Shaddocks and Shaddicks from Devon.

The village of Culmstock is just at the border of Somerset in the north east of Devon. It seems likely the village became inhabited by Shattockes from Somerset, although this statement waits for genealogical or genetic proof. A major branch of the Culmstock Shaddocks is descended from a female Shattocke. 

Direct descendants of west Somerset Shattocks who have recent ancestor there (19th century) form three branches of the family, the Milverton Shattockes found west and south of Taunton in the villages of Milverton and Wellington, the Staplegrove Shattocks and the Bishop's Lydeard Shattocks. Shaddocks who originally settled in Virginia, and now are found throughout the U.S. south, have been shown to be related to west Somerset Shattocks in Milverton and Wellington. See the Virginia Shaddocks and the Milverton Shattocks. There are also Shattocks from the Milverton branch who have settled in Australia.

There are other branches of the Shattocke family whose attachment to the family tree is unknown at this point because we have not found a descendant who we can DNA test, like the Mourambine, Australia Shaddicks

There are branches that appear to be unrelated to us, such as the Birmingham Shaddocks. Possibly this branch descends from a female Shattocke or we have only tested a branch descending from an NPE (non parental event).

Two Questions About Our Origins


There are two major questions about our origins: are we medieval immigrants to England, and where in the south west of England did our common ancestor live? At the end of this page I will propose some answers to the first question and on the next page ("English Heritage") I will propose an answer to the second question.

First question: We know we are descended from the La Tène Celts. But when did our ancestor come to England? The range is from about 400 BC to 1450 AD.  

Second question: Historical records show that Shattockes originated from England's west country, particularly in west Somerset and the border village of North Molton in north Devon. Shattockes are not found anywhere else in England prior to the 16th century. Some evidence points to our origin in the village of North Molton, on the border of Devon and Somerset as the home village. Other evidence points to the upper part of the Tone valley in West Somerset. This is the second question I am going to try to answer.

Let's dig deeper into the evidence.

Ancient Origins

There is evidence that England hosted ancient humans as long ago as 700,000 years. However the last ice age drove out humans who retreated to what is modern Spain (the Iberian peninsula). It was not until 10,000 years ago that modern humans began to repopulate England, from the European continent. In a sense the story of migration of humans into the British Isles continues to this day, unabated. A recent study of the Bell Beaker Culture (Olalde et al., The Beaker Phenomenon And The Genomic Transformation Of Northwest EuropebioRxiv, Posted May 9, 2017) found that the local population in England was largely replaced during the period c. 2900 and 1800 BC by migrants from central Europe who were in turn migrants from the steppes. However the study was based on only 19 ancient individuals. 

When did the first Shattocke ancestor become England's newest citizen? To answer that we need to retrace our most ancient ancestors' migration out of Africa. 

This graphic was discovered by Ken Shattock, a Staplegrove Shattock descendant, in the main library in London attached to the Shattock name. It was described as a "Dexter Hand Holding a Lion's Gamb." Translation: right hand holding a lion's leg or shank." 

The only way we can look into the deep history of the family is to read the genetic code stored in Shattocke DNA, passed down from one generation to the next unchanged. Or almost unchanged. Tiny changes to the genetic code, one letter in the genetic alphabet, do occur, very rarely. These one letter mistakes (called SNPs) are faithfully copied to the next generation and all subsequent generations. They can be used as markers that define new branches in the human tree. For our family that SNP marker is called Y16884.  

Y16884 branches off the dominant paternal lineage of Western Europe, R1b, also known as M343. Around 200,000 years ago our ancestors began a long migration that ended up in in the south of England, before more recently emigrating to the former English colonies. We carry the story of that migration in the male Y-chromosome members of our family. 

The journey of our forefathers begins in Africa with genetic Adam. You can see that journey from Africa to the Asiatic "Pontic" steppes in the diagram below. There we find an individual who lived sometime around 10,200 years ago on the steppe who had the "R" SNP copying mistake in his genetic code.  He is the oldest Eurasian grandfather in our family. He passed this change in his genetic code to his sons. And they passed it on to their sons. This means that in every male Shaddock, Shaddick, Shattuck or Shattocke and our genetic cousins, like the Parrishs and Byers or Byars, there is a tiny change in the genetic code of our DNA that sets us apart from billions of our fellow humans. Our family is descended from that man who had this single letter mistake, this marker of our shared ancestor. 


Migration path of our ancestors.

As time passed new copying errors in the Y chromosome happened by chance and were passed from a descendant to his sons. The sons and their descendants carrying the new mutation became part of a new branch of the family, defined by the name of the SNP mutation. This is how we know the path of migration of our family's ancient grandfathers. We find in them in our chromosomes and in the telltale code changes in the remains of prehistoric men buried in the places along the route. And in many cases we find them in the descendants who remained when their relatives moved on. This is how we can reconstruct the migration route for our family beginning in East Africa with "Genetic Adam."

Our steppe ancestors arrived in central Europe about 4000-4500 years ago (U152 on the map). We are a branch of U152 called Z36. Our Z36 ancestor lived in the German and Swiss Alps north of modern day Italy. That is where your 125th great grandfather lived, worked and died. In the 14th century we find the common ancestor Y16884 of all Shattockes and Parrishs / Byars in England. How he got there is still a mystery.


Our La Tène Ancestors

It may come as a surprise to you that your 125th grandfather was a Celt and not an Anglo Saxon. He belonged to a tribe in central Europe, defined by modern day eastern France, Switzerland, Austria, southwest Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. For our specific ancestors "home" was probably Switzerland. Broadly described he was a Celt, speaking a form of the Celtic language. More precisely he belonged to what ethnographers call the La Tène (lä-ˈten) culture, named after an archaeological site on the shores of a lake in Switzerland where artifacts created by these people were found.  The La Tène elite power structure arose at the fringes of the early Iron Age Halstatt elite power structure, which collapsed between 450 and 400 BC. Where the Halstatt lived in fortified enclosures on hill sides, La Tène people lived in small, dispersed, self-sufficient settlements in the valleys and plains below. 

Reconstruction of the house your 93rd great-grandfather lived in.

By the 4th century BC the La Tène had become over-populated. They developed a warlike culture where warriors became the elite members of a society that was otherwise not stratified like the earlier Halstatt culture. They began raiding the rich Mediterranean communities they found south and east of them. They were considered barbarians by the Roman and Greek classical cultures. They were heavily influenced by Mediterranean culture,  and the Celtic culture north of the English channel. 

The growing power of Rome and the constant state of war that La Tène brought upon themselves, along with increasing social stratification, eventually led to their decline and defeat at the hands of the Romans by the first century BC. Some scholars even suggest their love of wine and feasting made them too fat and contented to live up to their warrior ideals.

The take-away from all this is that we do not belong to the tribes that inhabited southern Europe or northern Europe. We do not descend from the Vikings or the Angles or Saxons. We are descendants of the La Tène Celts who expanded from their original home in the German-Swiss Alps and whose origin was the Pontic Steppe in Eurasia. If you are a Shaddock, Shaddick, Shattuck or a closely related genetic cousin (Paris, Parrish, Byars, Byers), have you been calling yourself an Anglo-Saxon all these years? You are not.  Call yourself a Celt or more precisely La Tène. (Sounds like "La Ten.") 

Tibor Feher, who is a descendant of the Z36 ancestor, collated research and discovered that .4 to .5 % of the population of the three countries England, Scotland and Norway are descended from Z36 La Tène Celts. (Less than 1/2 percent spread out over these three countries.) That is pretty strong evidence that only a very small number of our La Tène Celt cousins made it to England. We are on the extreme edge of the La Tène expansion from its home base in the German / Swiss Alps. And we were not part of a large invasion that displaced the local population in England. Although it can be argued that the black death, which by some estimates reduced the population of England by half in the late medieval period, might have wiped out Z36 descendants, but this seems unlikely as there is no evidence the black death disease was selective in its victims. 

At this point all the DNA evidence can tell us is that we arrived as immigrants to England sometime between 450 BC and the 16th century when records of our name first began to appear. Is there an historical record that narrows that time frame down?  

The Earliest Shattocke Records


The Staplegrove Church (now in a suburb of Taunton) is said to contain two vaults with Shattocke remains dating from the early 16th century.  

The oldest documented record of a Shattocke is found at the South West Heritage Centre in Norton Fitzwarren, Somerset. Document DD\SP/317,318 is an old record of tenants in the Manor of Taunton Deane, the old administrative district in Taunton and the surrounding area. There is a Thomas Shattocke who is listed as a tenant in Bishop's Hull, just a  mile and a half from Taunton, in 1450. He is perhaps the same Thomas Shattocke listed as a tenant in Nailsbourne, also just six miles from Bishop's Hull, in 1459. He is perhaps the same Thomas Shattocke in 1470 listed as a tenant in Staplegrove, just a mile south of Nailsbourne, now a suburb of Taunton. In 1483 he appears again in Staplegrove, along with a second Thomas Shattocke, presumably his son. This appears to be a single individual who moved from Bishop's Hull, to Nailsbourne and finally Staplegrove. There is a female Shattocke who appears in the tenants list during this period, a Johanna Shattocke in 1506 who is listed as a tenant in Bishop's Hill, perhaps his wife returning to her maternal home. Finally there is another female Shattocke, Alice Shattocke, who is a tenant in 1491 in Staplegrove. She may have been the wife of Thomas's son John. Subsequently there there is a rapid expansion of Shattockes in Staplegrove in the 16th century. This samples only one area of west Somerset, however Staplegrove is perhaps the largest and most continuous Shattocke village in Somerset, along with Norton Fitzwarren and Taunton that it shares boundaries with. 

The John Shattock Will of 1533

What is so useful about Deanna's find is that the list of names in the document help stitch together a paper trail of Staplegrove ancestors. For the Staplegrove Shattocks, the 1533 will of John Shattock of Staplegrove is a cornerstone because it mentions the Staplegrove church and lists his children and wife. The names in the will match up with the names on the tenants list, suggesting that Thomas Shattocke of Bishop's Hull 1450 was John Shattock of Staplegrove's father.

chyd. of Peter and Paul in Taunton—Wells iiijd—d. Elsabeth xx nobbles—my son John all my yer [gear] in my shoppe as well as v [£] worth—Thomas my son vjd  xiijs  iiijd other he to have the mansion other [or] tenement the wh. I dyd dwell in—Jone my d. xls—hye crosse in the ch. of Stapulgrowe xxd—sepulker of the same ch. Xx d—Sir John Hykelege xijd—John Gune viijd.

Res.—Alice my wyff.
Overseer.—John Sauser.
Witn.—Thos. Smyth, Thos. Gymmose.
Prob. in eccl. Cath. Well., 29 Dec. 1533.


"Thomas Shattock" is one of the first names to appear in the Taunton parish record, recording his burial April 18, 1559.

It is likely that the Thomas Shattocke who is the first Shattocke to appear in the Staplegrove parish record was the son of John Shattock who he bequeathed his dwelling to him in the 1533 will.  

Is Thomas Shattocke of Bishop's Hull the founder of the Shattocke family? By the beginning of parish records in 1538 there were a number of multi-generational Shattocke families in villages in west Somerset and in the village of North Molton in Devon, on the border between Devon and Somerset. So it seems unlikely Thomas Shattocke was the original founder. But he was probably the son, grandson or great grandson of the founder who lived in the 14th century. If he was not the founder, he may have heard stories of his grandfather or great grandfather.  

The Spelling of the Surname
The Manor of Taunton Deane tenants list provides a date for the earliest spelling of the name found on record. However there is an alternate version of the name found in the parish records of North Molton, Devon on the border with Somerset: Shatticke. The date is almost 100 years later, 1542. But it is possible Shattickes had been present in North Molton in the previous century. 

The evolution of the spelling of the family name from its first appearance in the records as Shattocke or Shatticke is a key to figuring out where the Shattockes come from. It is very powerful tool along with DNA in trying to fill in the gaps in the record and in trying to peer farther into the past then the records allow. A helpful resource in deciphering the variations in the Shattocke name (e.g. Shaddock, Shaddick, Shattuck, Shadduck) is "Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America" (Oxford University Press, 1989) by David Hackett Fischer. What we learn from Albion's Seed is that the New England twang has its roots in the dialects of the original colonists home in Somerset and East Anglia. To wit, the Somerset dialect transformed "o" into "u" hence Shattuck rather than Shattock. They would say "Zumerset" instead of "Somerset." The sharp Yankee twang preserves the "tt" in Shattock, hence Shattuck. Meanwhile the southern drawl of the Virginia colonists (derivative of the south west of England) softens the "tt" into "dd" and preservers the "o", hence Shaddock, instead of Shattuck or Shattock. In the past I have assumed that the spelling of names is more due to the way the name sounds in the dialect of the local area in England rather than simply a misspelling...and this proves to be true. 

Apparently in the past, Somserset villages had different ways of pronouncing the name, which might give us a clue as to where the emigrants from Somerset who arrived in the colonies came from. John Shattock, a modern descendant of west Somerset Shattocks, who now lives in Leicester, but who often visits relatives in west Somerset, has this to say about the way the name is pronounced (in an email to me): "The dialect is very pronounced [in west Somerset] and varies almost from village to village, although probably less now than it did in time before radio and TV. The closer to Devon border the more likely the double “t” will be pronounced as a double “d”. Although my name is spelled Shattock it is likely to be pronounced Shaddock or Shattuck or Shadduck. My grandfather pronounced it as Shattuck but some of his brothers in the way that your name is spelled (Shaddock). My father pronounced it with the “tuck” ending. I do not live in Somerset so tend to say “tock” because it is easier to explain the spelling when asked because Shattock is a rare name within England and even today most with this name will be found in Somerset and London."

Record of the marriage of my ancestor Richard "Shattocke" to Agnes Strellin in 1659. 

The Shattick Version

"Shattick" does not seem to have survived as a variant of the  Shattock name as a scientific study between 2000-2005  (Onomaps) does not have a record of that surname.

The Shadduck Version

A version of the Shattuck name appears to be "Shadduck." DNA testing of at least one Shadduck descendant showed him to be a Shattuck descendant. The fact is the name occurs virtually exclusively in the U.S. The Onomaps study shows there were 885 people with this name variant in the U.S. and a small handful in Germany (3 or 4!).

The Chaddock Surname

The Chaddock surname is often confused with Shaddock, although curiously not with Shattock. DNA tests show that Chaddocks are not related to Shattockes. The majority of Chaddocks belong to the branch of the human family called U198 which has ancient roots in England, formed long before surnames were used. People who descend from the U198 common ancestor have a variety of surnames like Norton, Lawrence, Shacklock and Chadick. Some people with the Chaddock surname belong to the FGC35559 branch of the human family, unrelated to the U198 Chaddocks or to Shattockes, which are Y16884. This suggests people with different genetic backgrounds adopted the name Chaddock when surnames were first adopted.

According to Philip Chaddock (one letter removed from my name) who is an administrator of the DNA project for the FTDNA Chaddock project, the name probably derives from a medieval village, Chaddock, that once existed just west of modern day Manchester.  The original spelling was Chaydok , with variants such as Chaidok, Chaydoke and Chaidoke, among others. It stabilized as Chaddock in the late 1600s. 

The Chadwick or Shadwick Surnames

There are no Shadwick projects at the FTDNA testing site. There are Chadwicks, and they appear to belong to a different branch of the human family than Shaddocks or Chaddocks: L21. Chadwicks are largely found in the north of England.

The Chadwick and Shadwick surnames have sometimes been mixed up with Shattocke variants in places like Dorset or New England. The Instow and Frithelstock branches of the family have Shadwick variations and Lemuel Shattuck mentions Shadwick as a version of Shattuck. The mix up in names occurs especially often in places like New York state where incoming immigrants in colonial times, arriving with heavy accents, often had their names recorded incorrectly. In two different cases I have examined, one Shaddock was actually a Polish immigrant and the other was a Chadwick from Lancashire.

Saddok and Shaddek

There are very early records of a surname variously spelled "Saddoc, Saddok and Shaddek" in the patent rolls and various legal documents dating back to the 13th century in the county of Berkshire. John, son of Richard Saddock is a tenant on the Stroud farm in the civil parish of Bray in the county of Berkshire in that year. There is a long history of the Saddok family in the county, with its most prominent member, Andrew Saddok, the rector of Whyte Waltham, a parish in Berkshire. He was apparently a man of property and wealth, as "Andrew Saddok and Richard Hanard owned an interest in the Earley Batholomew manor as of 1344 until 1355." The Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain and Ireland lists Saddok as possible early form of Shattocke, although Saddok has an obscure origin. It is possible, and the earliest reference to the name happens to coincide with the estimated date when the common ancestor of all Shattockes lived. The name disappears from the records about the time Shattocke begins appearing in parish records in west Somerset. I have collected the references to the Saddok family in a subpage of this one. One reference spells the name "Saddock" and another "Shaddek." If Saddok, Saddock or Shaddek are early forms of the Shattocke name, then the proximity of the county of Berkshire to London might support the theory of an early immigrant to England from Europe, since London was a major entry point, and the family could have migrated in a south west direction.

There are tax records that show William and Barbarie Shaddock living in Berkshire in 1642 with four children born between 1628 and 1640. Samuel Shattuck married Mary Snell Jul 19, 1628 (Lemuel Shattuck reference). Elizabeth Shattuck died Dec. 31, 1636 (Lemuel Shattuck ref.). Thomas Shattock had a child John Shaddock Nov. 21, 1686 in Tilehurst, Berkshire. However the sparsity of the name Shaddock in Berkshire suggests this was not a major Shattocke county. 

I found a few references to the Saddok name in contemporary sources. The surname apparently is Arabic in its modern form.

Captain Shaddock and The Forbidden Fruit

When was the first time you looked up "Shaddock" or "Shaddick" in the dictionary? If it was in the previous century you would have seen it was the name of a type of grapefruit whose parental seeds were brought to the West Indies by a Captain Philip Shaddock. However a couple of botany researchers published a paper in 1987 ( "Mystery of the forbidden fruit: Historical epilogue on the origin of the grapefruit, Citrus paradisi (Rutaceae) by J. Kumamoto et al.") that shows a paper trail back to the original spelling of the name, Chaddock, not Shaddock. It was also popularly known as the shattuck fruit, another variant name. The shaddock or shattuck fruit  should have been called chaddock, or perhaps chaddocke or chadock, since these are other spellings of Captain Philip Chaddock's name! 

See the narrative Captain Chaddocks and the Forbidden Fruit for the complete story.

Philip Chaddock's Y-DNA does not match any Shaddocks that have been tested against him. At this time we have not found a genetic link between Chaddocks and Shaddocks. I believe this is a case where two similar sounding names with completely different family genealogies have been confounded. 


Parrishs (and Byars or Byas)
In Shaddocks, Shaddicks and Shattucks who have been Y-DNA tested, numerous individuals with the surnames "Parrish, Byers, Byars and Byas" show up as matches, meaning they are closely related to our family. By "closely" I mean in the past 600 years. They are our very distant cousins, people we are more closely related to than all the other human beings on the planet. Advanced SNP testing has shown we share a common ancestor with them who lived in the 15th century. And it appears the Parrish ancestor split off from the Shattockes about 1600 AD. Byas or Byars and its variants may have branched off of Parrishs. 

The YFull SNP interpretation service has assigned the Parrishs to the subclade of Y16884 called A8033. It is important to note that the date of formation of this subclade (1600 AD) is estimated from Parrishs who have tested so far. If additional Parrishs or Byars do SNP testing that date will become more accurate.

I should make clear that only a small number of people with the surname "Byas, Byers, Byars or Parrish" are our genetic cousins. The majority of people who are not A8033 descendants but have the Parrish or Byars surnames actually come from a mixed background, meaning they come from different branches of the human family tree. In other words, other Parrish or Byars surnames arose from genetically unrelated people from different regions of England and France, who adopted the names. The Parrish and Byars descendants who are our genetic cousins have the A8033 mutation.

My best guess is that the Parrishs and Byars in our family came from a NPE event in Virginia. This guess is based on the date of the common ancestor (1600) and the fact they are found exclusively in the southern states of America and most trace their ancestors back to Viriginia. 

All but a few A8033 Parrishs and Byars have a unique genetic signature. They have 13 repeats for their DYS444 STR marker. This suggests a single common ancestor for all Parrishs and Byars or Byas descendants. 

The Etymological Evidence: Shatticke and Shattocke 

The DNA evidence cannot pinpoint a window of time for the immigration of a Shattocke or Shattockes into England, and no medieval document has been found that unequivocally identifies such a time period. But there is another way of determining the time frame. That is found in the etymology of the Shattock name. 

Etymological studies have long treated the Shattock name as having a German origin. Specifically it belongs to the West German branch of the Germanic languages, the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages. In "An Etymological Dictionary of Family and Christian Names" by William Arthur (1857) he has the following entry for the Shaddock name (page 32):

SHADDOCK or SCHADECK. Local. The name of a lordship in Germany.

By "local" he means the name was derived from a place name. 

Clifford R. Shaddick, in his 1950 Shaddick history, quotes from yet another source, the respected "British Family Names" by Henry Barber, published in 1894. Apparently Barber consulted twenty-seven genealogical sources in developing his list of British surnames. For Shaddick, his entry is:

                                                                        Shaddick. G. Schadeck ; a p.n. 

The initials "p.n." stand for "personal name," suggesting the name is not derived like many names (such as "Smith" as a derivation of "blacksmith") but rather it is simply a family name.  

A search in a world database for surnames shows that in 2002 Schadeck is found in Luxembourg, Belgium, Germany, France and the U.S. in that order. There are less than 1,000 people with that surname worldwide. The Schadecks are found in the same area that our remote ancestors originated from. At the Geneat genealogical website, a search in the database of people who traced their ancestry back to Schadecks in the period before the 17th century turned up the following very interesting statistics:
  • Switzerland 16
  • Luxembourg 9
  • Germany 8
  • Netherlands 2
  • Belgium 1
Almost half the people with the Schadeck name are descended from ancient families in Switzerland, with as many descended from ancient families north of Switzerland in Luxembourg and Germany. There is no record of how English etymologists in the 19th century identified this surname as the probable antecedent of the Shaddock and Shaddick names, but the DNA evidence of our origins points to the exact same area.

A German friend sent me a map showing the distribution of the "Schadock" name in Germany. Micheal Konther says the densest area where the Schadock name is found is Brandenburg, close to Saxony. 

The DNA evidence identifies Shattocke and our genetic cousins origins in the south of Germany with the hotspot in Switzerland, so an eastern Germany origin seems much less likely. A theory that suggest we have a common origin with modern German "Schadocks" perhaps shows how deceptive a similarity in the spelling and pronunciation of a surname can be. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that our ancient ancestors were a lot more mobile than we would prefer to think. 

If you do a web search for the origin of the name Shaddock, Shaddick or Shattock, you are told it comes from people who lived in Lancashire and Worcestershire with modern versions such as Chadwick, Shadwick or Chaddock and ancient forms as Chaddewyk or Cheddewic. But genealogical records firmly establish Shattockes in the English west country, primarily in the counties of Somerset and Devon. And the nearest relative to our common ancestor who lived in the 14th century is a common ancestor who lived 4300 years ago or 2300 BC. 

In the first edition of the authoritative Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain and Ireland, this confusion of the two names is repeated, albeit skeptically. On the basis of the DNA studies I and the project administrator for the Chaddock surname at Family Tree DNA (Philip Chaddock) have made, the Family Name in the United Kingdom Project will make it clear in the second edition of the Dictionary that Chaddock is not a variation of Shaddock or Shattock. Dr. Peter McClure, Principal Etymologist, has this to say about the Shattocke surname (in an email to me):

The etymology of Shaddock and Shattock remains a puzzle, partly because we have no certain instances of it in the medieval records, unless Saddok belongs with it, but the etymology of Saddok is also obscure. I agree with your website that a family involved in the woollen cloth industry could have arrived in SW England from Flanders in he 14th century, so it is worth looking for a Flemish surname origin. I’ve not been able to find one. I’m a aware of the continental surname Schadeck, which does exist in modern-day Belgium, and which may derive from Schadeck in Attert (Luxemburg) or Schadeck in Nassau (Germany), but there seems to be no evidence of it as a surname in medieval Flanders, and I’m not keen to offer it as a possible explanation of your name until there is evidence for an earlier Flemish usage.

I think that there is the possibility that the surname is an English locative name from a lost or unidentified place named in Middle English as *Shadok or *Shatok. This would be either from an unrecorded Old English *scēaduc ‘little boundary’, or from one of two Old English compounds scēad + āc ‘boundary oak’ or scēat + āc ‘corner oak’. A name of this type + Old English hyrst ‘wooded hill’ is possibly attested in the Kent place-name Shadoxhurst, recorded in the 13th century as Shattokeshurst, Sadhokesherst, and Chaddekesherst. You can see the evidence and explanations in V. Watts, Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names, at Shadoxhurst. I am going to put this tentative suggestion in the second edition of the Oxford dictionary. 

If you quote this from shaddock.ca please acknowledge this as the source: Family Names in the United Kingdom Project, University of the West of England (unpublished research).

The use of surnames in English is believed to have begun after the Norman invasion in 1066 when the Norman barons introduced the use of surnames, first among the ruling class and over time all the way down the social scale to free peasants or serfs as late as 1400. There are no records of a name like "*scēaduc" in medieval times. If there was a founder of the family much earlier than the 14th century, I think you would expect to find other surnames would have been adopted by his descendants. A plethora of surnames is found among descendants of families who do have founders in medieval England or earlier. But our surname is unique and our closest relatives is a branch of the human family called A7993 whose common ancestor with us is estimated to have lived 4300 years ago in continental Europe. The living descendants of that branch live in Europe, with the exception of a sub-branch with two individuals in England, with the surname Strang and Strong, which etymologists have described as late medieval names, where "strang" has the same root meaning as "stranger," clearly identifying them as recent immigrants to England when surnames were first adopted.

Discussion

Some have argued for a Middle English origin of the name. But etymologists since the 19th century have given the name a West Germanic origin, and some have theorized that it was originally "Schadeck." In fact the parish records of North Molton show "Shatticke" as the earliest form of the name, enduring down to the present in the alternate spelling of the surname, "Shaddick." And modern Shaddicks all originate from ancestors in North Molton. The question of where the common ancestor of Shattockes lived in the 14th century is open to question, so it is at least possible that the original form of the surname was "Shatticke." 

What is the evidence for an origin in North Molton? The earliest record of the name in North Molton is found shortly after parish records began in 1542. This suggests Shattickes were already living in North Molton in 1542. Nineteenth century etymologists, studying genealogical sources, considered Shaddick to be the closest modern form of the original spelling, presumably "Shatticke."  And they considered Shaddick to be derived from the West German "Schadeck" surname.  This raises an important caveat to the etymological study of our surname. Do we use "Shatticke" or "Shattocke" for etymological studies of the origin of the surname? For these reasons I agree with Dr. McClure when he ways the Shattocke name is "obscure" from the point of view of etymology.  

Etymological studies of the Shattocke or Shatticke name are useful forms of evidence, but ultimately the two basic questions about our origins are going to be answered through DNA mutational analysis. DNA testing shows that Shattockes and our genetic cousins the Parrishs and Byars share a common ancestor who lived in the 14th century. Study of parish records and other documents show an origin of Shattockes in northern Devon and western Somerset. According to the DNA evidence we do not have ancient relatives in Britain or Ireland. Our common ancestor with other La Tène Celts lived 4300 years ago in the Alpine mountains of Europe. 

But the scientific evidence I cite can be used for the counter argument against the late medieval immigrant thesis. The theory that Shattockes were not late medieval immigrants to England can use the DNA evidence for his counter argument. The argument goes that the plague, in dramatically reducing the population of England after 1348, created what is termed a "genetic bottleneck." However, I would argue that the further you go back in time for a founding ancestor in England, the greater the chance more than one branch of the family would have survived the plague. The fact is there are 89 people (including 26 Shattockes / Parishs / Byars) who are living descendants of the La Tène Celts and have done NGS DNA testing. Twenty-six of them are descended from a Shattocke founder whose descendants originate from a tiny corner of south western England. Of the other 63, only one traces his origin back to England, somebody with the surname Stevens from Oxfordshire. The other 63 living descendants are largely found in central Europe, with a hot spot in German, Swiss, Italian Alps the origin point of the Z36 La Tène Celts. I consider this evidence to make the immigrant thesis much more likely than the thesis of a genetic bottleneck. 

Further evidence is that all six branches of the family have as their common ancestor Y16884, the ancestor bearing the SNP mutation sometime in the middle of the 14th century. All but one of the six branches of the family discovered so far bear a variation of the name "Shattocke." (The Byars / Parish branch is most likely a Shattocke NPE.) This suggests a single founder with the name "Shattocke." If our ancestors emerged from the early or middle ages you would expect to discover other surnames that are genetically related to us. Why are there six branches of the family with the surname Shattocke or Shatticke and no other surname variant? Because we are descended from an individual with the Shattocke surname. 

I believe he was a West German speaking immigrant. The thesis is based on a study I have made of the DNA test results of Z36 living descendants and the genealogical data of their most distant known ancestors. It is a long and complicated study, but it has some pretty interesting historical aspects, including the Black Plague of medieval England and the Thirty Years's War in central Europe in the early 17th century. Worth a read: Testing The German Immigrant Thesis.

Studies of written records support the thesis of a single founder in the 14th century. The important records are:
  • Parish records
  • 1641-2 Protestion Returns and Lay Subsidy Rolls: Protestation Returns list every male eighteen or over in Somerset in 1641-2. Lay Subsidy Rolls are tax lists. Both act as a kind of census of Shattock males alive early in the early 17th century. The amount of tax charged to the individual Shattock gives us a measure of their wealth. 
  • 1674 Hearth Tax list. Homes were taxed based on the number of chimneys (hearths) they had. This was a rough measure of their size and opulence. 
  • Wills. These are valuable because they list not only the author of the will, but all of his or her relations, including in-laws.
  • List of tenants in the Manor of Taunton Deane from 1450 - 1644. This list does not include all the male or female ancestor names as there may have been Shattockes residing in the parish who were labourers. 
I have added all these references to my Word document

This information has helped tremendously in organizing, validating and filling in the gaps in the parish records. For example, the Stogumber parish records fail to record the parents of babies baptized in the local church until 1640. But the Protestation Return lists five male Shattocks living in the parish in 1641-2. So I know who the probable families in Stogumber were at that time. For those trying to find distant ancestors in the parish records, the information nails down what Shattock males eighteen or older were alive in 1641-2. Another example is the Milverton genealogy. There were only two Shattockes eighteen or older in Milverton and nearby villages in 1641-2, James Shattock and Thomas Shattock. This information makes it much easier for family historians to find their most distant known ancestor.

What is pretty remarkable is that there were only 23 Shattocke males in Somerset and 2 males in Devon in 1641-2. The Protestation Returns of 1641-2 are considered to be very reliable and comprehensive. There are a few Shattockes found in the tax list of 1641-2 that do not show up in the Protestation Return.  Robert Shattocke was assessed for tax in Stoke St. Gregory in 1641. John Shattocke in Wivelescombe was on the tax Roll for 1641-2 but not on the Protestation Return. Thomas Shattocke in Kingston St. Mary paid taxes but did not swear the oath. They may have been dissenters. 

It appears that the number of Shattockes appearing in parish records in the 16th and early 17th century are similarly modest in number. So we can treat this number of male Shattockes in the two counties as a very good census.   

The common ancestors of each of the four branches of the family that can be dated shows that they lived in the late 16th century and early 17th century. So the DNA evidence also seems to support the observation that there were very few Shattocke families in Somerset in 1641. In fact, for family historians seeking to find the English village where their ancestors once lived, the list of names and parishes narrows possible home villages down to a very short list. Here are the parishes were Shattockes are found in the 1641-2 Protestation Return:
  • Old Cleeve 1
  • Stogumber 7
  • Crowcombe 2
  • West Bagborough 1
  • Bishop's Lydeard 3
  • Taunton 1
  • Staplegrove 3
  • Norton Fitzwarren 3
  • Milverton / Runnington 2 
  • Kingston St. Mary 1 ?
  • Wivelescombe 1 ?
  • Stoke St. Gregory 1 ? 
  • London 1 ?
There appears to be at least one Shattocke family in the London area. 

From this list it can be seen that the most populous Shattocke village was Stogumber in the upper part of the Tone valley with seven male Shattockes 18 years old or older. When Stogumber is lumped in with nearby villages, it appears nearly forty percent of Shattockes were in the upper part of the Tone valley. The Taunton / Staplegrove / Norton Fitzwarren area is the second most populous area with nine Shattockes. The third most populous area appears to be Bishop's Lydeard with three Shattockes, although there is some evidence that Bishop's Lydeard should be lumped in with Staplegrove as Dea found a will that shows an early 17th century founder in Staplegrove had relatives in Bishop's Lydeard. In the DD\SP/1630/18 will in the archive at South West Heritage in Norton Fitzwarren, Henry Shattocke of Staplegrove has a will in 1638 where he distributes part of his estate to John and William Shattocke in Norton Fitzwarren, formerly of Bishop's Lydeard.

The Milverton area is the fourth most populous area with two or three Shattockes depending on whether the Shattocke in Wivelescombe is part of the calculation. 

Again, it seems that the DNA evidence is in accordance with this distribution of Somerset Shattockes into three main groups. The Milverton Shattockes have a common ancestor. The Staplegrove Shattockes have a common ancestor. The Upper Tone Valley Shattockes have a common ancestor. There is a Bishop's Lydeard Shattock.

Devon has one Shattocke in Culmstock, near the border with Somerset and two in South Molton, near the border with Somerset. The two South Molton Shattockes are mostly likely from North Molton, only a few miles away. 

There was one Shattocke who is found in Protestation Returns for the Wareham area of Dorset, with the name John Shatticke. This is a North Molton spelling of the surname. (However we should treat evidence from early Dorset and London parish records with a degree of caution. Chaddocks, who have a similar sounding last name to ours, are not genetically related to us and come from northern England, especially Lancashire. They seem to have been a seafaring people, because you find them in London and Dorset early on. There is at least one family in London where the parish record records them initially as Chaddocks and later their children are baptized Shaddock.)

In the tax Subsidy Roll of 1641-2 there are two Shattocke widows in West Bagborough, one in Kingston St. Mary, four in the Taunton / Staplegrove / Norton Fitzwarren area and one in the Wivelescombe area. Some of these widows are shown living next door or within five or six doors of other Shattockes, so they may have been near relatives. So the number of Shattock families in Somerset and in villages in nearby Devon might have been somewhere between 30 and 35 families. 

When you include the Parrish / Byars among the descendants of Y16884, our common ancestor in the 14th century, you have six branches of the Shattocke family that have descendants living today. And each of those six branches goes all the way back to the 14th century ancestor. I have written a rather lengthy analysis of this anomaly. Basically it comes down to this: it is most likely that the plague played a role in reducing the fertility of the family from the middle of the 14th century to the middle of the 15th century. And because there was no SNP mutation in several ensuing descendants of Y16884, his is the only shared SNP found by the Big Y test. 

Fifty-seven Shattockes, Parrishs and Byars have DNA tested and fall into the six branches. The sampling has been done with Shattockes and our genetic cousins throughout the world. All 57 Shattockes have the 14th century Shattocke ancestor Y16884 as their common ancestor. There are no ancestors of Y16884 that have appeared in what is a pretty good sampling of the population. This is additional support for the theory that we descend from a German speaking immigrant to England circa 1350. 

The tenants list for the Manor of Taunton Deane seems to show that there was only one Shattocke family by 1500 in the area. But tenants lists for other manors in Somerset apparently do not exist. Is it possible that the Thomas Shattocke on the Taunton tenant's list had other male children that dispersed to other areas of Somerset and as far afield as North Molton in Devon? The 16th century parish records are somewhat unreliable. Parish records were not mandated until 1538 and some parishes did not comply until late into the 16th century. Records have become lost or are illegible. This is a list of villages that had Shattocke families and the date when the first child in the family was baptized or another type of record like a tax record or will indicated the presence of a family.
  • Tolland 1525 - 1
  • Taunton 1533 - 1
  • North Molton 1542 - 1
  • Milverton 1549 - 1
  • Stogumber 1560 - 2
  • West Bagborough 1560 - 1
  • Fitzhead 1576 - 1
  • Cannington 1577 - 1
  • Wivelescombe 1582 - 1
  • Wedmore 1584 -  1
  • Crowcombe 1595 - 1
  • Bishop's Lydeard 1599-1
The evidence shows few Shattocke families in Somerset in the early 16th century, though we cannot dismiss entirely the idea that missing records may be the main culprit. It is difficult to tell from this study of the parish records if Thomas Shattocke from the Tenant's list of 1450 was the founder of all subsequent Shattock branches. 

What we do know is STR DNA results for those six branches of the family. They do not appear to share any signature markers suggesting the branches diverged earlier than the late 15th century. A case in point: We know that the founder of the Massachusetts Shattucks, William Shattuck (ca. 1622-1672) was born in Somerset before his pilgrimage to the Massachusetts Bay colony. Bob Shattock, who belongs to the Australian branch of the Southwark - London Shattocks, shares the SNP mutation with the Shattucks of America, indicating a common ancestor with them. He shares only a few signature STR markers with his distant relatives. So his common ancestor with the Shattucks must have lived early in the 16th century, or possibly the 15th century. One result suggests 1540. Because Bob and the Massachusetts Shattucks share no signature STR markers with any other branch of the Shattocke family and his common ancestor is Y16884 in the 14th century, it is possible the Massachusetts and Southwark London Shattockes split off from the family before Thomas Shattocke who is on the 1450 Manor of Taunton tenants list.

As a passing note, Bob Shattock's extended STR markers are additional, and perhaps final, proof that the South Carolina Shattucks are descended from William Shattuck (ca. 1622-1672) the founder of Shattucks in America. The South Carolina Shattucks have the Massachusetts Shattuck signature markers that Bob's Australian Shattocks lack. Take a look at the currently uploaded family spreadsheet, which has been revised with Bob's extended STR results. 

All the other branches of the family appear to be similarly divergent, sharing no signature STR markers among them. I think the plague probably wiped out the missing links between the branches of the Shattocke family, although it is possible that a descendant will be tested in the future that supplies one or more missing links. 

We Shattockes are a wandering horde, from Africa to Pontic Steppes. From the Pontic Steppes to the Alps of Central Europe. From there to England and from England to her colonies throughout the world. We are sole survivors. Our surname is one of the rarest on Earth and our founder in England, Y16884, appears to be the lone survivor of a branch of the La Tène Celts whose founder lived before most of the Egyptian pyramids were built. We were merchants, land owning squires and farmers. We were warriors, fighting in almost every English and North American war since the medieval ages. We originated as tenant farmers under feudal serfdom, freed ourselves and through our skill and ingenuity rose to great wealth and distinction, and continue to be so. 

The Story Continues

The next chapter of our story unfolds on the English Heritage page. Parish records, wills and other documents show that our family comes from a very small area in the English "west country." From there the principal branches of the family emigrated to Devon, London and to the English colonies.