A lane near Yarnscombe, Devon, much as it must have looked when our most ancient ancestors lived here.
This website organizes research I have done into the Shattocke ancestral family, including such name variants as Shattuck, Chaddock, Shaddick, Shaddock, Shadduck and so on.
You can use the search function above right to find a specific reference.
This "Origins" page explores the family's deep history, before 1500.
The "Diaspora" page describes family history after 1500 and the emigration of a major portion of the family to the British colonies due economic and technological forces in the 17th to 20th centuries.
There are two ways of exploring family histories, by region under the "Family by Region" menu or by following links off the family tree under the "Branches" menu. You can also use the search function. If you do not find your branch of the family attached to our tree, DNA testing may help you find that connection. There is a fund that provides free DNA testing
to qualified Shaddocks (or other name variants). Contact me
Note: When I am referring to the entire family I will use "Shattocke" as a generic reference to all the different spellings of the name found in the records, like Shattock, Shattuck, Shaddock, Shaddick, Shadduck and so on.
The Earliest Records
The first occurence of the name found in the historical record is Shattock. It is found in the records for the "Court of Star Chamber."
The Star Chamber was an English court of law which sat at the royal Palace of Westminster, from the late 15th century to the mid-17th century (c. 1641), and was composed of Privy Councillors and common-law judges, to supplement the judicial activities of the common-law and equity courts in civil and criminal matters. The Star Chamber was established to ensure the fair enforcement of laws against socially and politically prominent people so powerful that ordinary courts would likely hesitate to convict them of their crimes. (Wikipedia)
Alexander Shattock and Richard Shattock were probably farmers living on the manor of Lydiard, in the county of Wiltshire, who had been denied the use of land that was previously considered to be common land open to all. They rioted and were dragged into court by the defendants, who had laid claim to the land. (We know that enclosure was an issue on the manor. The Quarter sessions in 1579 ordered that the land in Lydiard, which had been staked out and measured, should remain as it was until the next assizes when 11 persons, all of Chaddington, were due to appear on a charge of riot, rout, trespass, and battery.) The manor is located in the county of Wiltshire, which is just next door to the counties of Somerset and Dorset where Shattocke descendants are found.
The next time the name is encountered it is in 1524. At Bampton Parish in 1524 a tax payer called Thomas Shatok was taxed for ownership of goods. It appears that he or his son (John Shattocke) were taxed again in 1543, also based on ownership of goods. In all cases I have found that the double "t" version of the name (as in Shattocke or Shattick) is the most ancient spelling of the family name, preceding all other variants.
The Etymological Evidence: Shatticke and Shattocke
If you do a web search for the origin of the name Shaddock, Shaddick or Shattock, you are told it comes from people who lived in Lancashire and Worcestershire with modern versions such as Chadwick, Shadwick or Chaddock and ancient forms as Chaddewyk or Cheddewic. But genealogical records firmly establish Shaddocks, Shaddicks and Shattocks in the English west country, primarily in the counties of Somerset and Devon. And DNA testing has shown they are not Anglo-Saxon but rather La Tène Celts who are found in Switzerland and southern Germany some 5000 years ago. Furthermore, reputable etymologists confirm this origin by giving the name a German origin, not an Anglo-Saxon origin.
In fact the evolution of the spelling of the family name from its first appearance in the records as Shattocke or Shatticke is a key to figuring out where the Shattockes come from. It is very powerful tool along with DNA in trying to fill in the gaps in the record and in trying to peer farther into the past then the records allow. My own experience confirms this. One was hearing Robert Shaddock on the phone from Alabama pronouncing his last name like "Shaddick." Another was hearing on the phone Terry Shattuck, who lives in Georgia, pronouncing his name like "Shaddock." A helpful resource in deciphering the variations in the Shattocke name (e.g. Shaddock, Shaddick, Shattuck, Shadduck) is "Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America" (Oxford University Press, 1989) by David Hackett Fischer. What we learn from Albion's Seed is that the New England twang has its roots in the dialects of the original colonists home in Somerset and East Anglia. To wit, the Somerset dialect transformed "o" into "u" hence Shattuck rather than Shattock. They would say "Zumerset" instead of "Somerset." The sharp Yankee twang preserves the "tt" in Shattock from one of its origins as an East Anglia dialect, hence Shattuck. Meanwhile the southern drawl of the Virginia colonists (derivative of the south west of England) softens the "tt" into "dd" and preservers the "o", hence Shaddock, instead of Shattuck or Shattock. In the past I have assumed that the spelling of names is more due to the way the name sounds in the dialect of the local area in England rather than simply mispelling...and this proves to be true.
What complicates this is the fact that after settlement in English colonies circa 1640, the English dialects back in England continued to evolve differently from their colonial counterparts. The American spelling of "Shattuck" is an amalgam of Somerset and East Anglia dialects, the result of the influence of these two English local dialects. Back in England, the Somerset spelling preserves the original Somerset way of pronouncing Shattock. And Shattucks who migrated south in the U.S. gradually transformed the pronunciation of their name from "Shattuck" to "Shaddock" as it sounds in southern drawl. Back in England the Devon Shattockes who had migrated from Somerset, gradually adopted the pronunciation of the Devon dialect, and Shattock became Shaddock.
The migration of Shattockes is accurately reflected in the way the name is locally spelled in the U.S. and Canada (which is largely populated by Shaddock descendants from Devon). This is a wonderful confirmation of the genealogies me and other people have worked out. Try saying "Shattuck" and "Shaddock." Notice how Shaddock is slower, more back in the throat, while Shattock is sharper and the tongue moves up to the front of mouth. What you are doing is reproducing the migration pattern of the original Somerset Shattockes.
The DNA results from testing descendants tells us all Shaddocks, Shaddicks, Shattocks, Shattucks, and Shadducks are descended from a common ancestor that lived about 1270 AD. What the spelling of the name tells us is where we have lived. In fact we know that the original father and mother of us all in Somerset in 1270 was a Shattocke...or at least the last name of that couple sounded like "Shattocke" as nobody was spelling it back then. How do we know that? We have relatives whose nearest common ancestor is this couple from 1270. In other words they are descended from the sons of that original ancestor. When the descendants of that couple in 1270 finally got entered into birth, death and marriage records in Somerset, their names were spelled Shattocke or Shatticke.
As descendants moved from their original home in Somerset, their children adopted the local dialect of English, and their children began to spell their names as they heard it pronounced. You can see this in the birth records in North Molton, Devon, which I think was the first village in Devon where Shattockes from Somerset moved to. The early records show their name spelled as "Shattocke" or "Shatticke," just as it was spelled in Somerset. But by 1600 the descendants of these Shattockes were speaking with a Devon accent and the spelling of their name changed to Shaddock.
It is the same case for the Massachusetts Shattucks. When they first arrived circa. 1635 in Massachusetts Bay, they spelled their name Shattocke, just as they had in Somerset where they came from. But the colony mixed people from East Anglia and Somerset and Devon in the English west country. The Yankee dialect that emerged resulted in the name sounding like "Shattuck." When some of those same people subsequently emigrated to the south (the Carolinas), the local dialect was closer to Devon than Somerset or East Anglia. So children of Shattucks began pronouncing their name "Shaddock." This is how spelling tells us where people came from. We assume people did not know how to spell. And that may have been true in many cases (although probably not early New England). But many of the record keepers were educated, and they were trying to spell the name the way it sounded at a time when there was little standardization in the way words were spelled.
My last name is Shaddock. I am descended from the Shattocke ancestor who lived in 1270 Somerset. My genealogy places me in North Molton, Devon around 1500. The name was spelled Shattocke. By 1700 the records of my ancestors started spelling the name "Shaddock." Then my 4th great grandfather Thomas moved to Ontario, Canada, among Devon people homesteading there. So the name Shaddock followed him over there and lives down to this this day as the most common form of the name in Canada.
Here is the record of the marriage of my ancestor Richard Shattocke to Agnes Strellin in 1659.
The last two lines record the marriage of Richard Shattocke to Agnes Strellin (?) in 1659. This is the oldest paper record of the Shaddock / Shaddick lineage that originates in Devon's Yarnscombe village and eventually disperses worldwide from nearby villages.
The document is in terrible shape. Richard Shattocke's name is also hard to read on the record. However other records of his name, that is baptism records of his children, consistently spell his name Shattocke.
His sons would have their names spelled Shattocke as well. It is not until the third generation, born between 1704 and 1726 that the name acquires its more modern spellings: Shaddick and Shaddock. This is a very important clue to our origins as the change in spelling helps us estimate when family members left Devon and Somerset in a great diaspora and where they emigrated to.
Indeed the origin of the Shattucks in Somerset, and the origin of Shaddocks and Shaddicks in Devon reflect the common spelling of the name in the two counties, which are next door to each other. Shaddock or Shaddick is the common spelling for the family name in Devon, whereas Shattock or Shattick is the common way of spelling the name in Somerset. This is the result of local dialect in the counties.
See the page on the Massachusetts Shattucks for a study of the Shattuck family and evidence I provide there for the origin of the name as "Shattocke." I also include a map of the Shattock name that shows that Shattuck was the preferred spelling of the Shattocke or Shatticke name in the U.S.A while Shattock and Shattick are the common form of the name in the other English colonies settled by Shattocke and Shatticke descendants.
Shattocke as a German Surname
The question becomes: "Is the name Shattocke an ancient Anglo-Saxon name as many contemporary sources on the Internet suggest? (Although they tend to use the modern derivation, Shaddock.) Or is it of more recent derivation, specifically a German name."
There is a case for Shattocke as a German name. Lemuel Shattuck in the 19th century reported an oral tradition that the Shattucks (or Shattocks, or Shaddocks) were of German origin.
A tradition has existed that the family ere of German origin; but if such be the fact, which is not improbable, it must have existed there in a very remote antiquity. It may have been, and probably was, among the Angles and Saxons, or Anglo-Saxons of the northerly part of Continental Europe, who peopled England and America with their most shrewd and energetic races. If we adopted terms in common use in our day, we might denominate ourselves Americanized-Anglo-Saxons.
From "Memorials of the Descendants of William Shattuck; Lemuel Shattuck; Dutton & Wentworth Boston, 1855. pp 8 - 14
Read the complete excerpt from the book: http://www.shaddock.ca/shaddockancestors/devon-shaddocks/1855-account-of-the-shaddock-name
Lemuel Shattuck is arguing for an ancient Anglo-Saxon heritage, consisting of Saxons, Jutes, and Angles. However, the Y-DNA research I have conducted shows conclusively that we are in fact descended from Celts, not Anglo-Saxons. It is still possible the name has an Anglo-Saxon derivation because it would not have been adopted by our ancestors until the 14th century. But we lived among Celtic descendants and the name appears to be more Germanic than Anglo-Saxon.
"Shattick" does not seem to have survived as a variant of the Shattock name as a scientific study between 2000-2005 (Onomaps) does not have a record of that surname.
The Shadduck Version
A version of the Shattuck name appears to be "Shadduck." DNA testing of at least one Shadduck descendant showed him to be a Shattuck descendant. The fact is the name occurs virtually exclusively in the U.S. The Onomaps study shows there were 885 people with this name variant in the U.S. and a small handful in Germany (3 or 4!).
The Chaddock Surname
The Chaddock surname that is found in the north sounds like "Shattock" or "Shaddock." According to Philip Chaddock (one letter removed from my name) who is an administrator of the DNA project for the FTDNA Chaddock project, the name probably derives from a medieval village, Chaddock, that once existed just west of modern day Manchester. The original spelling was Chaydok , with variants such as Chaidok, Chaydoke and Chaidoke, among others. It stabilized as Chaddock in the late 1600s.
Worldwide distribution of the Chaddock name according to the OnoMaps study at the University College of London between 2000 and 2005.
Notice in the map at the left that the highest concentration of people with the Chaddock name as of 2005 is the United States with about 770 people, and Canada has the highest concentration of Chaddocks with about 360 people. The United Kingdom has 430 Chaddocks. The Chaddock name is even more rare than the different forms of the Shattocke name.
Not shown on the map is Australia and New Zealand. The study detected no Chaddocks in Australia and only 10 Chaddocks in New Zealand.
If we take a closer look at the distribution map for the U.K. (on the left) we see the name is prevalent in the Midlands and North West with a somewhat lower incidence in Yorkshire and Humberside.
The families Shaddocks and Chaddocks were 160 miles apart (between Stoke-on-Trent and Taunton, Somerset). That would seem to make it unlikely they are related.
However it is difficult to know how much significance to give this. I do not have enough Chaddock DNA data as a foundation for a theory. The names have become confused in the records, making DNA analysis the only long term solution to sorting out family histories. Philip Chaddock traces his ancestors back to Staffordshire and he belongs to haplogroup R-CTS10893, which is a subclade of U106. It is thought U106 people descend from Germanic tribes that inhabited what is modern day Denmark and northern Germany. They are part of a distinctly different migration of early peoples into Europe. This makes Philip Chaddock very different in his ancestral origin than Shattockes. Were his ancestors the invaders and mine the local residents? We will see how ongoing DNA studies play out this story! Is Philip's DNA results typical of other Chaddocks who are not Shattocke NPEs?
The Chadwick or Shadwick Surnames
The Chadwick and Shadwick surnames have sometimes been mixed up with Shattocke variants in places like Dorset or New England. The Instow and Frithelstock branches of the family have Shadwick variations and Lemuel Shattuck mentions Shadwick as a version of Shattuck. But DNA tests of descendants of Chadwicks or Shadwicks from English areas north like Lancashire have proven that their ancestors are not even remotely related to Shattockes of south western England. The mix up in names occurs especially often in places like New York state where incoming immigrants in colonial times, arriving with heavy accents, often had their names recorded incorrectly. In two different cases I have examined, one Shaddock was actually a Polish immigrant and the other was a Chadwick from Ireland.
Captain Shaddock and The Forbidden Fruit
When was the first time you looked up "Shaddock" or "Shaddick" in the dictionary? If it was in the previous century you would have seen it was the name of a type of grapefruit whose parental seeds were brought to the West Indies by a Captain Philip Shaddock. However a couple of botany researchers published a paper in 1987 ( "Mystery of the forbidden fruit: Historical epilogue on the origin of the grapefruit, Citrus paradisi (Rutaceae) by J. Kumamoto et al.") that shows a paper trail back to the original spelling of the name, Chaddock, not Shaddock. It was also popularly known as the shattuck fruit, another variant name. The shaddock or shattuck fruit should have been called chaddock, or perhaps chaddocke or chadock, since these are other spellings of Captain Philip Chaddock's name!
Philip Chaddock's Y-DNA does not match any Shaddocks that have been tested against him. At this time we have not found a genetic link between Chaddocks and Shaddocks. I believe this is a case where two similar sounding names with completely different family genealogies have been confounded. But we will have to wait until a lot more DNA evidence comes in.
One last thought. If you look at the Chaddock name distribution in the U.K. in the graphic above, you will see that it was possible there was a flow of migrants north or south between the Midlands and south western England. Only further DNA studies will determine if this was historically the case.
Possible Etymological Origin of the Family Name
There is corroborative evidence for a German derivation of the name. It is in the form of a scholarly book that was written in 1857 titled, "An Etymological Dictionary of Family and Christian Names. With an Essay on Their Derivation and Import" by William Arthur. He has an entry for the Shaddock name. Here it is on page 32:
SHADDOCK or SCHADECK. Local. The name of a lordship in Germany.
By "local" he means the name was derived from a place name.
Clifford R. Shaddick, in his 1950 Shaddick history, quotes from yet another source, the respected "British Family Names" by Henry Barber, published in 1894. Apparently Barber consulted twenty-seven genealogical sources in developing his list of British surnames. For Shaddick, his entry is:
Shaddick. G. Schadeck ; a p.n.
The initials "p.n." stand for "personal name," suggesting the name is not derived like many names (such as "Smith" as a derivation of "blacksmith") but rather it is simply a family name.
A search in a world database for surnames shows that in 2002 Schadeck is found in Luxembourg, Belgium, Germany, France and the U.S. in that order. There are less than 1,000 people with that surname worldwide. The Schadecks are found in the same area that our remote ancestors originated from. At the Geneat genealogical website, a search in the database of people who traced their ancestry back to Schadecks in the period before the 17th century turned up the following very interesting statistics:
Almost half the people with the Schadeck name are descended from ancient families in Switzerland, with as many descended from ancient families north of Switzerland in Luxembourg and Germany. There is no record of how English etymologists in the 19th century identified this surname as the probable antecedent of the Shaddock and Shaddick names, but the DNA evidence of our origins points to the exact same area.
A German friend sent me a map showing the distribution of the "Schadock" name in Germany. Micheal Konther says the densest area where the Schadock name is found is Brandenburg, close to Saxony.
The DNA evidence identifies Shattocke and our genetic cousins origins in the south of Germany with the hotspot in Switzerland, so an eastern Germany origin seems much less likely. A theory that suggest we have a common origin with modern German "Schadocks" perhaps shows how deceptive a similarity in the spelling and pronunciation of a surname can be. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that our ancient ancestors were a lot more mobile than we would prefer to think.
What DNA Tells Us About Our Origins
Vital records began sporadically in England after 1538 and were not in wide use until a century later. Many records have become lost, badly damaged or inaccurately transcribed. Our family was not sufficiently illustrious, notorious or royal to warrant mention in historical documents before vital records were kept. The only way we can look into the deep history of the family is to read the genetic code stored in our DNA, passed down from one generation to the next unchanged. Or almost unchanged. Tiny changes to the genetic code, one letter in the genetic alphabet, do occur, very rarely. These one letter mistakes (called SNPs) are faithfully copied to the next generation and all subsequent generations. They can be used as markers that define new branches in the human tree. For our family that SNP marker is called Y16884.
Y16884 branches off the dominant paternal lineage of Western Europe, R1b, also known as M343. Around 25,000 years ago our ancestors began a long migration to our ultimate home in the south of England. We carry the story of that migration in the male Y-chromosome members of our family.
The journey of our forefathers begins in eastern to southern Africa with genetic Adam. But I will begin my story further down the line, with the migration of our forefathers into Europe from the western Asia steppes. There we find an individual who lived sometime around 25,000 years ago who had the M343 SNP copying mistake in his genetic code. He is the oldest Eurasian grandfather in our family. He passed this change in his genetic code to his sons. And they passed it on to their sons. This means that in every male Shaddock, Shaddick, Shattuck or Shattocke and our genetic cousins, like the Parrishs and Byers or Byars, there is a tiny change in the genetic code of our DNA that sets us apart from billions of our fellow humans. Our family is descended from that man who had this single letter mistake, this marker of our shared ancestor.
As time passed new copying errors in the Y chromosome happened by chance and were passed from a descendant to his sons. The sons and their descendants carrying the new mutation became part of a new branch of the family, defined by the name of the SNP mutation. This is how we know the path of migration of our family's ancient grandfathers. We find in them in our chromosomes and in the telltale code changes in the remains of prehistoric men buried in the places along the route. And in many cases we find them in the descendants who remained when their relatives moved on. This is how we can reconstruct the migration route for our family beginning with M343 man in far off western Asia.
Enlarge the map to see where your so very distant relatives are buried. Each point where you see a letter code (like M269) is the site where your direct male ancestor lived, farmed, fought and moved on. The map tells the story of the migration up to 1200 BCE (before the common era). Look for U152 in the Alps north of modern day Italy. That is where your 125th great grandfather lived, worked and died.
We know that is where he settled in Europe because he had a descendant who had a new SNP variant, called Y16884. And that variant is what
distinguishes us from other European males, our cousins, such as the L21 males who were the first to settle in England. If you are wondering if you are biologically a true Shaddock or Shaddick or Shattuck (or our genetic cousins with other surnames like Parrish or Byars) than you can actually purchase a test kit, swab your cheek, and send the test kit back. A few months later the DNA testing company will confirm or deny your membership in this wandering tribe of humanity. (If you are a Shaddock, Shaddick or Shattuck you might be eligible for free testing under the Robert J Shaddock DNA Fund.)
So where was this ancient culture that we belonged to? We belonged to a tribe in central Europe, defined by modern day eastern France, Switzerland, Austria, southwest Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. For our specific ancestors "home" was probably Switzerland. Broadly described he was a Celt, speaking a form of the Celtic language. More precisely he belonged to what ethnographers call the La Tène (lä-ˈten) culture, named after an archaeological site on the shores of a lake in Switzerland where artifacts created by these people were found. The La Tène elite power structure arose at the fringes of the early Iron Age Halstatt elite power structure, which collapsed between 450 and 400 BC. Where the Halstatt lived in fortified enclosures on hill sides, La Tène people lived in small, dispersed, self-sufficient settlements in the valleys and plains below.
Reconstruction of the house your 93rd great-grandfather lived in.
By the 4th century BC the La Tène had become over-populated. They developed a warlike culture where warriors became the elite members of a society that was otherwise not stratified like the earlier Halstatt culture. They began raiding the rich Mediterranean communities they found south and east of them. They were considered barbarians by the Roman and Greek classical cultures. They were heavily influenced by Mediterranean culture, and the Celtic culture north of the English channel. This map shows the original extent of the Hallstatt culture in yellow and expansion of the La Tène culture in green.
The growing power of Rome and the constant state of war that La Tène brought upon themselves, along with increasing social stratification, eventually led to their decline and defeat at the hands of the Romans by the first century BC. Some scholars even suggest their love of wine and feasting made them too fat and contented to live up to their warrior ideals.
The take-away from all this is that we do not belong to the tribes that inhabited southern Europe or northern Europe. We do not descend from the Vikings or the Angles or Saxons. We are La Tène Celts. If you are a Shaddock, Shaddick, Shattuck or a closely related genetic cousin (Paris, Parrish, Byars, Byers), have you been calling yourself an Anglo-Saxon all these years? You are not. Call yourself a Celt or more precisely La Tène. (Sounds like "La Ten.")
Parrishs (and Byars or Byas)
In Shaddocks, Shaddicks and Shattucks who have been Y-DNA tested, numerous individuals with the surnames "Parrish, Byers, Byars and Byas" show up as matches, meaning they are closely related to our family. By "closely" I mean in the past 900 years. They are our very distant cousins, people we are more closely related to than all the other human beings on the planet. Advanced SNP testing has shown we share a common ancestor with them who lived about 1270 AD. We do not have next generation SNP results for Byas and its variants, but the evidence so far is that they branched off of Parrishs. SNP studies suggest that the common ancestor between the Shattockes and Parrishs lived about 1270 AD. Given that surnames did not arise until about 1400 among our ancestors, that probably means when it came to adopt surnames, at least one ancestor chose Shattock or Shattocke while at least one other chose Parrish.
The R-Y16884 branch (aka clade) of the human family that formed about 4300 years ago includes both Shattockes and Parrishs The YFull SNP interpretation service has assigned the Parrishs who have tested to the subclade R-Y16884, called R-A8033. It is important to note that the formation of this subclade is estimated from Parrishs who have tested so far. It says that they had a common ancestor who lived about 1500 AD.
I should make clear that only a small number of people with the surname "Byas, Byers, Byars or Parrish" are our genetic cousins. The majority of their descendants actually come from a mixed background, meaning they are not genetic cousins. The Parrish surname arose from genetically unrelated people from different regions of England and France, who adopted the Paris or Parrish surname.
The Parrish name is very rare in the earliest Devon, Somerset and Dorset records suggesting their origin may be from points north of Devon. A search for Parrish, Parris, Paryish or Parish in the records produces a John Parrish (b. 1552) and family in Syndenham Damerel, a village in the west of Devon, and a Parris family in Plymouth on the south coast in 1595. There is another Parris family on the south coast in 1797. An Alice Parish or Parris is christened in Axminster, not far from the coast in the north, in 1769. And in Yarcombe, north of Axminster there is another Parris or Paris family around 1580. So there were a couple of Parrish families in Devon in the 16th century. There is a Parish family in Bath, Somerset, which is in the far north, around 1575. And one more Parris family in Ditcheat, roughly in the middle of Somerset. So it is likely that the Parrishs actually came from north of Devon and Somerset.
Another curious fact is that A8033 Parrishs have so far only appeared in DNA tests to be from Virginia in the 17th century. No English, Austrailian or Canadian matches have been shown up so far. According to the YFull analysis the R-A8033 Parrishs branched again about 1800. The phylogenetic tree shows remarkable parallels between the DNA studies and the study of genealogical documents.
Further testing is required.
The Rarity of the Shattocke Name and Its Variants
I did a study of the 1891 England Census. Using a family household as my basic unit, I counted how many Shaddicks, Shaddocks or other variant surname households there were in England in that year. There were 71 households in the entire England. Here are the tabulated results:
The surprise is that there were only 71 households in England. We know that a huge number of the families dispersed around the world from the 17th through the 19th century, particularly to North America and Australia. The largest number of households were in Devon, with 21 households, followed by London with 18, and 7 households in each of Dorset and Somerset. Fifty-four or just over three quarters of the family lived south of London, even after the industrial revolution in farming made farm labourers and cottage workers leave largely agricultural Devon and Somerset, literally for greener pastures in the new world. A study of earlier census records showed that Londoners who said they were born in London were from families that had relatively recently migrated from Devon or Somerset. Indeed there are Shaddock households in Yorkshire that originated from Burrington, my own branch of the family's departure point for Canada.
On following Diaspora page of this site, I present a table that shows just how rare the Shattocke name, including its variants really are. A study at the University College London (UCL) shows that there were about 11,500 descendants of Shattockes in 2005. That is .00000017% of the world's population of 6.49 billion people.
Is there an explanation for the rarity of the surname and the lack of a wide number of genetic cousins like the Parrishs and Byers? I decided to look elsewhere for an explanation. I researched populations dynamics between 1270 AD and 1550 AD. Here is what I found:
Pre-industrial populations had low reproductive capacities.
- 20 percent of couples would have no children surviving them
- 20 percent would have only daughters surviving them
- 60 percent would have one son survive them
Estimates of the average family size is between 3.5 and 4.5. The consensus is that the smaller size was more probable. The practice of legal “maintenance agreements, “ where a couple beyond their reproductive years contracted with another person to look after them until their death in exchange for property rights yields an interesting statistic. Over half the agreements were with people unrelated to the retired peasants. This suggests over half of peasants had no surviving children.
This rate probably improved in the 12th and 13th century but in the early 14th century famines and diseases swept through the English countryside. The earliest recorded incidence of the bubonic plague was in 1348 in Dorset from an immigrant from Gascony. Dorset is next door to Somerset and Devon where our family originated. Estimates of mortality are 50% in the first wave of the plague and 20% in the decades that followed for a cumulative total of 60%. Two out of three people who would have descended from our common ancestor were wiped out.
I have not done the math for the expected expansion of the number of descendants from that couple who gave birth to the common ancestor between Shattockes, Parrishs and possibly Byars / Byers, but this might explain why our DNA results only show three groups of surnames, Shattockes, Parrishs and Byars / Byers. And it might explain why there are so few Shattockes in the early records. Finally it might explain why I have been having success recently connecting far-flung branches of the Shattocke families together using both genealogical and genetic research tools. I did explore an hypothesis hat an immigrant family arrived in Devon / Somerset in the 15th or 16th century. But now it seems YFULL (the SNP interpretation service) analysis of the SNP evidence and my own analysis of the STR evidence is pointing to another immigrant to southern England whose presence explains the low number of Shattockes and our Parrish cousins in the world. That immigrant was was a seaman who arrived at Weymouth, Dorset, from Gascony in June 1348. He was carrying the bubonic plague.
Here is something else to consider. The ancient form of the name, either "Shattocke" or "Shatticke," does not appear to be descriptive and cannot be traced by etymology to a place, occupation or other obvious human feature or activity, or a feature or activity of the natural world. Almost all etymologists consider it to be or German origin. We come from a very specific place, Devon and Somerset. So while the theory of a recent (i.e. around 1270 AD) immigration of a "Shattocke" family to England might is still plausible. However if it is not be the case, perhaps it can be said that the Shattockes that carry the name down to the present are members of a single founding family around the 14th century. And we are the handful of survivors of black plagues, of English civil war, of religious persecution, of crop failures and economic turbulence. Aren't we lucky to have such a rare and unique last name? It makes the job of re-establishing the family's shared history so much easier than names like Smith or London.
On the following page of this site, The Diaspora
, I discuss the modern distribution of the family throughout the world.
Immigrants to England?
There is additional evidence for a migration of a single family into Devon from our ancestral grounds. It comes from the analysis of the Devon DNA Project results at FTDNA (the testing company Family Tree DNA). The Devon DNA project is focused on surnames of people who have ancestors who lived in the county of Devon, England. There are 515 members of the Devon DNA project.
The Y-DNA results of 499 members of the project into haplogroups. Haplogroups is the scientific name for "branches" of the human family, so it is a useful way of categorizing people according to their DNA results. People who belong to the same subclade are closely related in a relative basis.
A large number of the testers, 380, have been autosomal tested, so we cannot count them. Of the remaining, 102 testers have not done testing to the level where we know what subclade they belong to. That leaves us with 110 people who we can compare ourselves to.
P312 is a subclade (branch of) M269. (See on the map.) We belong to this subclade. Only 53 of the 110 Devon testers have ancestors who belong to this subclade.
Now let's come forward in time again and follow our ancestors to the next location. U152 is a subclade of P312 that migrated to roughly the German and Swiss Alps and down into Italy. It was formed about 4500 years ago. We are a member of this branch. Only 4 of the 110 members of the Devon DNA group are assigned to this subclade. Wow. This is pretty significant.
Of course the final migration was to the German and Swiss Alps and the founding of the La Tène culture about 4500 years. This is the Z36 subclade. I am the sole member of this subclade. My subclade in extremely rare among people who trace their most distant ancestors to Devon.
What does this mean? I think it adds evidence to a theory that says Shattockes, Parrishs and Byars were not part of a mass migration of La Tène descendants to Devon. There must have been a single individual or single family that arrived in Devon. Unless plagues and families had a particularly devastating effect on our ancestors, it is quite possible our common ancestor was a relatively recent immigrant to England from continental Europe, sometime around 1270 AD. Of course, it is also possible the migrant came from north or south of Devon. But the etymological study of the name suggests a recent German origin. And the DNA interpretation service YFull recently estimated our common ancestor lived in the year 1270.
Does this analysis of the DNA data at the Devon DNA project prove that Shattockes, Parrishs and Byas's were immigrants to England about this time period? No, but it does provide some evidence to support that theory. If Shattockes and our genetic cousins were part of a large migration or invasion, or part of a steady trickle of migrants, we would expect a lot more U152 or Z36 DNA results to show up among the large sample (100+) of Devon descendants. But so far, I am the single individual who shows up as a Z36 Celtic immigrant to Devon among all Devon testers.
Was there an invasion of a large number of La Tène celts into England. Kees Recourt, who studies Z36 celts has produced a map that shows where modern descendants of La Tène celts now live. The heaviest cluster is around Switzerland. Then around northern Italy and north around Mannheim in Germany (which also happens to have a large concentration of modern Schadocks!). You don't see any dots in France, but the state has made it illegal "to preserve the peace in families." The dots on the land mass of England appear to be fairly evenly scattered. What this shows is that there are no heavy concentrations of Z36 celts in England. Of course we need a larger sample to be more definitive, but add this to the list of reasons why I think the ca. 1270 common ancestor we Shattockes are all descended from was an invasion of a single immigrant into England. He was carrying a green card, not a sword or axe.
The next chapter of our story unfolds on the next page. A majority of the descendants of the Shattocke Celts who arrived in England to farm its fertile land in Devon and Somerset sometime in the Dark Ages or the early Medieval period would find themselves uprooted again by social and economic forces and scattered almost literally to the four corners of the earth. I call it The Diaspora.