Chulmleigh - Bristol Shaddicks

by Philip Shaddock

Modern members of the Chulmleigh-Bristol Shaddick family have roots that can be traced back to Richard Shattocke (abt 1640-1706) of Yarnscombe, Devon. He founded the Yarnscombe Shattockes. The Bristol Shaddicks are shown in this Yarnscombe Family Tree:

To see where the Yarnscombe branch of the Shattockes fit into the Shattocke family tree, click on this link to the Experimental Shattocke Phylogenetic Tree.)

Richard Shattocke ca. 1640-1706 (Agnes Strellin ABT 1640-1710)  Yarnscombe

Thomas Shattocke (Shaddock) b. 1681 (Joan Stabledon b. 1685)  Fremington

George Shaddick 1715-1810 (Ann Paul b. 1716) (Elisabeth Weber 1723-)  Bideford

Thomas Shaddock 1740-1786 (Ann Podger 1740-1810)  Warkleigh

                          James Shaddick  b. 1764 (Elizabeth Guard 1770-1841) Warkleigh 

                                                 James Shaddick 1793-1865 (Sarah Hulland 1785-1829) Chulmleigh


Ken Shaddick b. 1934 with his grandad Albert Edward Shaddick 1881-1940 in Bristol, in the late 1930s.

James Shaddick 1793-1865 of Chulmleigh was the grandson of Thomas Shaddock (1740-1786), who is the common ancestor for many Shaddock or Shaddick lineages in this area of northern Devon. Chulmleigh is only four miles from Burrington, eight miles from Warkleigh, eight miles from High Bickington and ten miles from Chittlehampton, all villages populated by descendants of Thomas and Ann Shaddock of Warkleigh.

The Shaddick and Shaddock variants of the name appear to have been interchangeable at this time. Thomas Shaddock's son James was born in 1764 as James "Shaddick" but his marriage to Elizabeth Guard 23 years later in 1787 shows James "Shaddock" on his marriage record. (Let's call him James Shaddick senior.) The marriage occurred in Chittlehampton and James sr. is described as being "of this parrish" but his first born child and three subsequent children were born in Warkleigh, with the final child born back in Chittlehampton. So James Shaddick junior, born in 1793 might have spent the major portion of his life growing up in Chittlehampton. His younger brother William, born in 1766, is my direct ancestor. When he married a local woman in Burrington, Sarah Hammet, he moved there from Warkleigh. So James jr. would have had an uncle close to the age of his brother living a mere four miles away from Chulmleigh. 

Interesting to note on the marriage record for James sr. and Elizabeth Guard is that she was able to sign her own name, but her husband was not. He signed with an "X." His brother William, however, was able to sign his own name. Had something happened in the family fortunes between the birth of James in 1764 and the birth of William in 1766?

The records show that James jr. married Sarah Hulland in the village of Kings Nympton, four miles north of Chulmleigh. He is described as a "sojourner" in the parish, which means he did not live there. It was home to Sarah. Both Sarah and James signed the marriage record with an "X." 

James Shaddick senior joined the army in 1799. He had been working as a labourer, which was a precarious existence because he was either a day labourer or at most had a contract for only a year. This was a time when the economy of England was in bad shape. He made have joined the army to support his family. That means his son would have seen his father go off to war when he was six years old. He is listed as a veteran of the Napoleonic War. He was in the 40th foot. He served between 1799 and 1816, which probably meant James Shaddick Jr. did not have a father at home for a good amount of time until his father was blinded while in service. This apparently happened in Nova Scotia, Canada, because he ended up in London in the hospital at Chelsea. For a more extensive bio, see his entry on this page.

Residence date: 4 Oct 1816 source: UK, Royal Hospital Chelsea Pensioner Registers of Soldiers Who Served in Canada, 1743-1882 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2013.

This family was to see a lot of turmoil in the ensuing generations and it may trace back to the fact James Shaddick Sr. was away much of the time fighting in wars.

James jr. apparently moved to Chulmleigh sometime before he was married. The baptism record of his first child in 1820 says he was living in Chulmleigh and working as a labourer. I have found a google maps coordinate that puts you on the edge of the village, with the local church spire in the background and a wonderful view of the countryside. You can drive into the village and explore its ancient charm.



"Grampy" Shaddick (Albert Edward 1881-1940) and his wife Mary (nee Player) with their son Albert Charles (1902-1976). This picture was taken 1903 or 1904. 

There was an interesting witness to the ceremony: James Buckingham, vicar of the parish of Burrington, thirteen miles away. The marriage on the 29th day of March in 1818 was on a Sunday. What was vicar Buckingham doing on a Sunday signing as a witness to a marriage ceremony between James Shaddick and Sarah Hulland? Jennifer Trapnell, a direct descendant of that marriage, told me that Buckinghams are in the ancestral tree for Sarah Hulland. I grew quite fond of vicar Buckingham when I wrote the history of the
Burrington Shaddocks. That makes me perhaps a relative of vicar Buckingham by marriage.

James and Sarah did not have a long marriage. In 1829 Sarah Hulland died. James would subsequently marry Elizabeth Bodley 1789-. There are no records of children from the second marriage.

James and Sarah had three children: William Shaddick 1820 – , Ann Shaddick 1820 – Mary Shaddick 1825 – . William and Ann were not twins as they have baptism days separated by six months. We do not know anything at this point about the subsequent stories of these siblings, but we do know something about the history of Mary Shaddick, because she is the direct ancestor of the Bristolian line of Shaddicks. Mary's parents were labourers at a very difficult time in the history of England, when there were few jobs in Devon, where farmers were the main employers. In both the 1851 and 1861 censuses, at age 58 and 68, they are described as agricultural labourers, not servants, which probably means they did not have full time jobs.

It is likely that James Shaddick ran afoul of the law not long after his marriage. He may be the James Shaddick who in July 1820 was jailed for 14 days and whipped for larceny, spend three months in jail in 1823 for larceny, and in 1826 at the age of 33 and one year after the birth of his daugher Mary was convicted of stealing sheep and sentenced to death. His sentence must have been commuted to transportation because he was released from his sentence in 1830.

Reference: HO 17/103/141; Description: Recommendation for the mitigation of sentence for selected prisoners on board the York hulk, Portsmouth. James Shaddick: aged 35 (James would be born 1895), convicted at Exeter [Devon] on 13 March 1826 of sheep stealing. Initial sentence seven years transportation. Gaoler's name: W Wickham, Overseer, William Tate, Chaplain, and John Henry Capper, Superintendent. Grounds for clemency (Recommendation Details): The prisoners have served more than half of their sentence and conducted themselves well on board the hulk. Annotated (Recommendation Details): Free pardon prepared 26 April 1830. Date: 1830 Apr 6; Held by: The National Archives, Kew

James may not have completely reformed. He was apparently charged with arson three years later, although acquitted. His first wife had died while he was serving his sentence in 1829, which would have left Mary without a father and mother for the year until her father was discharged in 1830. He married Elizabeth Bodley (1789--) the next year.  The dates of the birth of his children, and his second marriage are on either side of his sheep stealing sentence. If James Shaddick who was in and out of trouble with the law was Mary's father, Mary had an extremely turbulent childhood.
 
Was she rejected by her new mother? Did she leave home. Whatever the case, Mary entered a workhouse, probably in her teens. She likely had no choice, because able bodied people could not get relief without entering a workhouse. An article from Wikipedia describes what she faced:

The origins of the workhouse can be traced to the Poor Law Act of 1388, which attempted to address the labour shortages following the Black Death in England by restricting the movement of labourers, and ultimately led to the state becoming responsible for the support of the poor. But mass unemployment following the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, the introduction of new technology to replace agricultural workers in particular, and a series of bad harvests, meant that by the early 1830s the established system of poor relief was proving to be unsustainable. The New Poor Law of 1834 attempted to reverse the economic trend by discouraging the provision of relief to anyone who refused to enter a workhouse. Some Poor Law authorities hoped to run workhouses at a profit by utilising the free labour of their inmates, who generally lacked the skills or motivation to compete in the open market. Most were employed on tasks such as breaking stones, crushing bones to produce fertiliser, or picking oakum using a large metal nail known as a spike, perhaps the origin of the workhouse's nickname.

Life in a workhouse was intended to be harsh, to deter the able-bodied poor and to ensure that only the truly destitute would apply. But in areas such as the provision of free medical care and education for children, neither of which was available to the poor in England living outside workhouses until the early 20th century, workhouse inmates were advantaged over the general population, a dilemma that the Poor Law authorities never managed to reconcile.

Jenny's grandparents, Albert Charles Shaddick 1902-1976 nd Joan Ellen Bishop 1904-1989 on their wedding day. Handsome couple.

The nearest workhouse to Mary Shaddick's birth place was in the village of South Molton, about eight miles away. 

Mary had two boys in the workhouse, both with no father noted on their birth records. John Shaddick 1849- and William Shaddick 1853- would grow up in the workhouse. We know this because Jenny Trapnell provided me with two newspaper accounts of their mother Mary hauled before a judge because she tried to abandon her two boys in the workhouse. 

It is possible Mary only entered the workhouse when she was pregnant. She would have her clothes removed, fumigated and stored for when she would leave again. She would be issued a grey uniform composed of harsh calico and linen and labelled with a number. Her hair would close-cropped. Items like matches, knives and alcohol would be seized. She would undergo a medical examination and her fitness for work would be judged. She would be sent to a segregated ward, for women only. Even girls and boys would be segregated from each other and from their parents.   

If Mary worked, it would probably be as a domestic. Her boys would attend school and they would receive training for service in homes in the surrounding communities. This is apparently true of Mary's boys who would work in homes not far from the South Molton workhouse. Some children were boarded out with foster parents. Although the parents were supposed to send their charges to school, keep them clean and ensure church or chapel attendance, some foster parents are known to have abused their foster children.

Peter Christie's 'Looking Back' Column in the North Devon Journal (1951-1959)
1851 - Mary Blake and Mary Shaddick of Bishopsnympton are jailed for 1 month each for abandoning their illegitimate children in the Workhouse. 

Trewman's Exeter Flying Post - Thursday, December 20, 1855
Southmolton News - Mary Shaddick has been sent to gaol for a month for deserting her two children.

Note that Mary Shaddick is said to be living in Bishops Nympton, which is only 3 miles from the workhouse in South Molton. 

There are no subsequent records that allow us to understand what Mary's story was. But the economic forces that drove her into the workhouse were also the forces that caused the Shaddock and Shaddick families to disperse from Devon and Somerset to other parts of England and overseas to the British colonies around the world.

William had a job as a servant in Devon early in his life. We find a William Shaddick of approximately the right age (16 years old, born about 1855) working as a servant in the family of widower Thomas Loveland and his two adult sons in Bishops Nympton, the village where Mary Shaddick is said to be living in the above newspaper accounts. What lends credence to this scenario is the fact William's brother John appears also to be working as a servant in Rose Ash, another 3.5 miles south and east of Bishops Nympton. He is 19, roughly the right age to be William's older brother. He is a servant in the household of John and Catherine Wright. Servants sourced from a workhouse would be a form of cheap labour. Both brothers gave the census takers Bishops Nympton as their birthplace. Were they telling a white lie about their birth in South Molton where the workhouse was located? Bishops Nympton was the village their grandmother Sarah (nee Hulland) was born in. And there are no records of a John or William Shaddick birth in Bishops Nympton in this time period.

The shame of being born without a father and in a workhouse, and the grim prospects of a life in servitude might have the two brothers dreaming of a escaping a claustrophobic rural life and seeking better opportunities in a far off city. A family story passed down to Bristolian Shaddicks gives credence to this view. Ken Shaddick, Jenny's uncle, says that Mary's two sons John and William arrived in Bristol on the back of a cart bearing cabbages from Devon. Jenny Trapnell: "William and John made their way to Bristol possibly to work at WD & HO. Will's a big employer in the city making cigarettes and cigars.  Bristol was a major Port at that time." William worked later as a "metal smelter" according to the death certificate (1878) of his first born son, who died in infancy of bronchitis. 

The two sons of Mary Shaddick followed the path of thousands of children of farmers and farm workers from farm fields to English cities or to ships sailing to better opportunities in other parts of the world. 

We don't know what happened to John Shaddick. But William Shaddick married Elizabeth Webb 1858- and they had six children. These descendants became the Bristolian Shaddicks. At the age of 24, in the 1881 census in Bristol, he is working as a laborer at a smelting works with his wife Elizabeth and his son Charles. In the 1891 William's occupation is described as "general labourer" and all his children are in school. They live on Somerset Street in Bristol.

Barracks for the regular army at Taunton, Somerset.

The Bristol Shaddicks certainly did their part for king and country. One of William's sons, Charles Edwin Shaddock, is found living at the barracks for the regular army in Taunton, Somerset in 1911. He married Ellen Kate Sampson, widow, nee Hall, in Bristol in 1912. Jenny: "His poor wife was already a widow when they married, her name showing in the marriage certificate is Sampson but her fathers name us Hall, so I started to look for a marriage to a Mr Sampson, I found a marriage to a George Simpson 1907 her name on the marriage certificate in Behnke. There is also a marriage to a Charles Behnke/Belinks 1898. She appears to have been married at least 3 times and had 4 children. My great grandparents were witnesses at the wedding."

His choice of vocation as a soldeir would take him abroad during the first world war, fighting on the north west corner of India and Pakistan. According to Ken Shaddick, family legend is that his great uncle was court-martialed for abandoning his gun while he lay unconscious! He was killed in action on Sept. 26, 1918 in the Balkan theatre at Salonika and buried in Greece. 

Jenny tells us about another son of William b. 1853:  "William's son Albert Edward [b. 1881] is known to have worked at a local smelting works. A sad thing is that he died of lung cancer probably from inhaling smoke for most of his life.  Uncle Ken [b. 1934] remembers him well as he lived with them after his wife died.

My great grandfather Albert Edward (Pop) died of lung cancer when I was eleven so I did know him. He was in the Royal Flying Corps in the first world war, training on observation balloons. He was lucky, the war ended before he was sent to France. His brother, dad's Uncle Fred, was in the army in WW1.

My granddad Albert Charles 1902-1976 was in the auxiliary fire service during WW2. The family lived in a house in Bedminster, Bristol called Chatham Cottage that they shared with his brother Wilfred and his family.  They had a limousine business before the war. The vehicles were commandeered during the war so they ended up with no business. They also kept pigs at the back of the cottage, slaughtering one illegally during the war! Then the family had a window cleaning business cleaning the windows on the Wills Cigarette factory. This business continued until a few years before my father's [Norman Charles Shaddick] death in 2002.

Donald Shaddick b. 1941 died at the age of 5 in 1946. My dad remembered his death as a child. 

My dad Norman Charles died whilst on holiday in Austria of an Aorta Aneurysm his father and grand mother died of the same thing. 

Robert b. 1933 and cousin Keith b. 1932 married sisters Mavis & Jean Weeks.

Alice b. 1906 was known as Emily or Aunty Em she emigrated to Rhodesia with her husband to live with her son and his wife.  Her granddaughter Michelle now lives in Australia and her Grandson Carl in London UK."

The New York Branch

Fred Shaddick and his wife Martha (nee Martha Roseman)

Jenny: "Uncle Ken remembers his granddad seeing his brother Frederick (Frederick William Shaddick 1887-1956) off at the local train station as he was emigrating to USA, Fred gave Albert a gold watch to remember him but Albert threw the watch in the river on the way back home saying good - riddance to bad rubbish! (Apparently)  Albert was a Methodist Lay preacher and Fred a rogue!!"

Indeed Jenny did find her lost American relative. I did a little bit of digging and found one of his descendants had a tree on Ancestry.com.  Fred and his wife Martha lived and prospered in Rochester, N.Y., USA. 

The 1930 US census shows that he arrived in the U.S. in 1925 at the age of 36. He brought his wife, Martha nee Roseman, who was Irish, born in Northern Ireland.  

They had a son and a daughter. A 1928 city directory shows him living in Rochester working as a "watchman." In 1929 he was described as a "freight handler." He would work in the shipping industry until his retirement. The 1930 census shows he worked as a "platform man" in a warehouse. He owned his own home. He is a trucker in 1938. 1940 he stated his occupation as delivery man. 

He did return to England, at least once, because we have a ship's manifest from the Cunard Line "Queen Mary" showing his arrival at New York from Southampton, England on Sept. 19, 1951. We know he visited his relatives in Bristol because he attended his nephew Ken's wedding. 

His wife Martha probably had family in New York state because there are family photos of them at more than one gathering. That may have been his incentive for moving to the U.S. Fred was 63 when he travelled back to England (and possibly Northern Ireland) in 1951, travelling with Martha, his wife. His home address was 8 Ethel Street, Rochester, N.Y. The house still stands there today, bracketed by newer homes, a signpost in the life of a family. 


Fred Shaddick probably died at age 68, because there is a Social Security claim made in his name on May 3, 1956.

Unknown to the Shaddicks in the Rochester areas is that a Shaddock family lived there. The Burrington Shaddocks had a common ancestor with the Chulmleigh-Bristol Shaddicks in Thomas Shaddock (1740-1786) and Ann Podger (1740-1810) six or seven generations back. Read about the Rochester Shaddocks here.

Family Genealogy


Mary Shaddick b. 1825 Chulmleigh

        1. John Shaddick 1849– Chulmleigh to Bristol

        2. William Shaddick 1853– (Elizabeth Webb 1858–  ) Chulmleigh to Bristol

                    2.1 Albert William Shaddick 1877–1878 Bristol
                    2.2 Charles Edwin Webb Shaddick 1879– (Ellen Kate Sampson nee Hall b. 1879)
                    2.3 Albert Edward Shaddick 1881-1940 (Mary Emily Player 1882– )

                                    2.3.1 Albert Charles Shaddick 1902-1976 (Joan Ellen Bishop 1904-1989)
                                                        Robert Shaddick 1933– (Mavis Weeks 1937- )
                                                        Kenneth Shaddick 1934– (Sylvia Baldwin)
                                                        Norman Charles Shaddick 1934-2002  (Mary Janet Emery 1939-2011)         
                                    2.3.2 Wilfred George Shaddick 1904-1981 (Doris Lilian Price 1906–1985)
                                                        Donald Albert Shaddick  1936–1941 
                                                        Keith George Shaddick 1932-2005 (Jean Weeks 1937- )
                                                        Allan David Shaddick 1935– (Mary Dury 1937-)
                                    2.3.3 Alice Emily Shaddick 1906- (Bertram Hannam)
                                    2.3.4 Florence Alice Shaddick 1907- (Sydney C Jones)
                                    
                    2.4 Florence Beatrice Shaddick 1886-1974

                    2.5 Frederick William Shaddick 1887–1956 (Martha Roseman 1896-) Bristol to Rochester, N.Y. USA

                                    2.5.1 Margaret Shaddick 
                                    2.5.2 Reginald N Shaddick 1931–

                    2.6 Alice Gertrude Maud Shaddick 1895– (Charles Hopkins 1894– )



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