Birmingham - Bristol Shaddocks
The Birmingham Shaddocks are found in the English cities of Bristol and Birmingham. They first appear in the census records in Warwickshire in the middle of the 18th century. But as we will see, it is the spelling of the surname that shows up in the 18th century. The Shaddocks of Birmingham may actually have been present in the area since the early 13th century.
When I first found Shaddocks in Birmingham, I wondered how Somerset Shattocks had found their way so far north. The Shattocks of Somerset are found in London after the middle of the 16th century, but there is no DNA confirmed case of a Shaddock or Shattock north of London until the 19th century. So I asked, why do we find Shaddocks in Birmingham, seventy-five miles north of Bristol and a hundred miles north west of London by the middle of the 18th century?
Three descendants of the Australian branch of the family have proven through DNA testing to NOT descend from the Shattocke common male ancestor (Y16884 / Y16895 who lived in the 14th century), one from a Brooklyn, New York branch and the other from the Australian branch.
An SNP panel test of Dale Shaddock, who is an Australian Shaddock descendant, revealed he belongs to a branch of the human family tree that is identical with the Chaddocks, U198. Some of his STRs also match him to Chaddock descendants. The Shaddocks of Dennington, Australia and the Shaddocks of Brooklyn, New York are very likely descendants of Chaddocks.
It was my 17th cousin John Shattock whose research finally cracked the mystery. He discovered that Chaddocks or Chattocks or Schattocks had been in the area of Birmingham for at least six centuries by the middle of the 18th century. And they were landed gentry possibly dating back to land meted out to them by William the Conqueror. Here is a map that shows the locations he discusses in his comments:
John: "The Chattocks were a large influential land owning family based in Castle Bromwich and Solihull, Warwickshire, who had land in that County and also in Staffordshire, Worcestershire, Gloucestershire (around Bristol, which at one time was in Somerset until the new County of Avon was formed) and in Dorset nearly 200 miles South of Castle Bromwich. I can’t connect them with property in Somerset although they would pass through the County on route to Dorset. They are well documented in the history of the area and once lived at the medieval manor Park Hall, which was demolished centuries ago. They were never Chaddocks and although there are different permutations of their name in ancient documents, as there are also with the name Bromwich (as Bromwych, Bromwic, Brammage), the one that continued in Warwickshire was Chattock but the earliest known spelling in Castle Bromwich was actually Schattok.
After the conquest William handed out lands to those he valued. Subsequent Norman Kings did the same. However, those lands were spread around England in different locations. The strategy of this was to prevent them gathering too much power in a single area and being able to form private armies that could subsequently threaten the Crown. They were gifted lands in separate Counties far apart. The land was always owned by the Crown and leases gifted or sold.
The Chattocks can trace their ancestry back to 1241 in Castle Bromwich, according to local records. The earliest spelling in the 13th and 14th centuries was “Schattok” and not Chattock. Presumably the “Ch” has the same pronunciation as the French and sound like the “ch” in champagne rather than the “ch” in “chart” or “cheat” or “cherry”, therefore retaining the same phonetic pronunciation as “Shh”.
They have proven documented links in the 1500s to ownership of land in the Isle of Purbeck in Dorset 200 miles South of Castle Bromwich. We know this because Henry Chattocke of Purbeck appointed his brother John Chattocke as his Attorney to manage “all of his lands in Castel Brammage” (Castle Bromwich). This is approximately the same period that brothers Henry and John were dealing with properties in Somerset. The first names are repetitive in Castle Bromwich as they are in Somerset so; Henry, John, William and Thomas, are the repeated names of fathers, sons, uncles, cousins, with the occasional Robert, Richard and Christopher when they had more than three sons. By 1591 the Chattock name in Dorset seems to have reverted back to Schattock and Shattock.
I have attached a short timeline of the Chattocks. (Download from Google Drive.) This is an abridged version because many of the other documents relate to real estate transactions and litigation relating to it. The name spellings all refer to the same family and are exactly as in the documentation or the transcriptions of those documents. I’m continuing because there is so much information. Christopher Chattock believed that the Chattocks in Dorset are related to the Shattocks of Somerset but there is not a lot of evidence that I’ve found so far other than Henry Chattock of Purbeck Dorset used his brother John as an acting Attorney to manage his property in Castel Bromwych (Castle Bromwich) in the similar slightly later period that John Shattock in Somerset was doing similar things for his brother Henry and nephew Christopher. There is also a Christophe (Christopher) among the Chattocks in Dorset in the 16th Century."
John then discusses a book by Christopher Chattock, the historian, who wrote extensively about the Chattocks, who he believed were related to Somerset Shattocks (although DNA testing contradicts this theory). (Antiquities: consisting of translations of some three hundred unedited charters and deeds, Chattock, Christopher, Birmingham, Cornish brothers, 1884.) Notice that his book was published in Birmingham.
John: "When I first found Christopher Chattock’s book, I thought that he was just doing what we’re doing around his own family name but I’ve since found that he was a respected historian of his time. What I have tried to do where possible is to revisit some of the original documents he refers to. He was not always correct about surname spellings and was often too eager to print other permutations as Chattock."
One of the theories that Christopher Chattock proposes is that the Chattocks may have immigrated to England as Jews. I have excerpted a major portion of his book here.
I should note that some descendants of the Dennington Shaddocks trace their ancestry back to Dorset.
Deritend St. John's in Birmingham, now demolished. This is where many Shaddocks were born, married and where their funerals were held.
We will see that Birmingham Shaddocks were successful business people when we first discover them in Birmingham.
The earliest record of a Shaddock in the county Warwickshire is the marriage of William Shaddock to Hannah Reading in Birmingham in April, 1748. A William Shaddock, son of Thomas Shaddock, dies in nearby Baddesley-Ensor in 1758, ten years later.
You may be thinking of Birmingham as a large metropolis. Click on the link above to see just how small Birmingham was in 1731. It was a town, not a village, but it was not a very big town. Big for its day, but very small in modern terms.
Of particular interest in the records is Robert Shaddock, born in Birmingham in 1763. He was a cordiner, an old word describing the profession of shoe or boot making, a profession that the Dennington Shaddock descendants brought with them to Australia. In the 1851 census Robert is retired in Aston, now part of central Birmingham. John Shaddock, founder of the Dennington Shaddocks, lived in nearby Redditch, 20 km (12.5 mi) away with his family. Despite having churchs in Redditch, he and Ann traveled to Birmingham to baptize the three daughters born while living in Redditch, the last one in 1848. It seems likely John and Ann Shaddock were relatives of Robert Shaddock, who like John, was a boot and shoe maker. He appears in the "1830 Wrightson's Triennial Directory of Birmingham" as a "boot and shoe maker" living in the Aston area of Birmingham. His son Robert Jr. (ca. 1797) is listed as a "bronze, chandelier, lamp, lantern and lustre manufacturer &c." He had a bronze foundry. There are tax records in the 1830s and 1840s that shows Robert Shaddock owned four rental properties in Aston. On the 1851 census form he is shown living in Aston as a widowed, retired cordiner (boot and shoe maker), with his son, retired brass founder, and a servant Elizabeth Young, age 62. The fact the son is retired at age 54 speaks to the success of the family.
Bottoming room in a shoe factory about 1872.
Perhaps Robert Sr. was an uncle who apprenticed John in his shoe and boot making business. This might explain why John Shaddock is born in Bristol but spends most of his adult years in or near Birmingham. I think the evidence for his close relationship to Robert Shaddock is the fact John met and married a local girl in Aston. This was his marriage to Ann Whittel (1809-1901) in Yardley, an area in the east side of Birmingham. Ann Whittel was the daughter of Edward Whittel (1771-1847), who was a long time resident of Aston, where Robert Shaddock lived. If John Shaddick was apprenticed to Robert Shaddock Sr., he married a neighborhood girl. (See the Diaspora page for an understanding of the how the apprenticeship system worked at this time in England.) John and Ann Shaddock's son Edward Whittel Shaddock was named after Ann's father. And her daughter Susannah Cole Shaddock married her cousin Edgar Dunn, who was Edward Whittel's grandson. This was a close knit family.
It might be significant that Robert Shaddock Jr. was in the brass foundry business not the shoe business when he was young. It is not until the 1877 that a trade directory lists him as a shoemaker. Perhaps he retained ownership of the shoe business left to him by his father. The fact his father was able to buy property suggests to be he was using leverage to build his business. That would mean he had either workers in his shop or he sold shoes made by shoemakers working in the neighborhood. Or Robert Jr. simply understood this model and revived it long after his father had left the business.
Robert Jr. had an older brother Joseph (b. 1793), but he died at age 22. And there was a sister, Mary Ann (b. 1790). I have found no record of a Robert Shaddock Jr. marriage or children. When he died he was buried beside his father. I suspect John Shaddock knew this family well. His common ancestor with them was probably only a couple of generations away.
Brook Street, where Robert and his son lived. This picture was taken in the mid 1950s.
Shoe making was originally a "cottage industry" with individuals in villages making shoes to order for their neighbors. Eventually shoemakers began stocking more standardized shoes in stores that allowed customers to pick up shoes as they needed them rather than waiting for them to be made. By the 1750's, precisely when Shaddocks show up in Birmingham, larger stores began stocking products from other shoemakers. This might have made it possible for the first Shaddock or Shaddocks to find a market for their shoes in Bristol or Birmingham by selling to shop keepers. Eventually they could afford to open their own shop. But by the 1850s shops began stocking shoes from factories. There might not have been much of a business for Robert to inherit.
Other possibilities are that John Shaddick was at first an employee of Robert Sr. or supplied him with shoes.
Entrance to the Warstone cemetery in Birmingham where Robert Shaddock Sr. and Jr. were laid to rest.
Robert Shaddock Sr. died in January 1854 at the age of 91. He was buried in a new cemetery, the Warstone cemetery, in the Jewelry Quarter of Birmingham. (It's foundation stone was laid in 1847.) John Shaddock sailed for Australia in 1855. Are these two incidents related? Probably not. It may have simply been there was a decline in the handmade shoe and boot business in England as a result of the burgeoning industrial revolution that made prospects for a shoemaker brighter in distant Australia. He probably saw a market for handmade shoes in a newly developed region of distant Australia. Handmade shoes would be an advantage in a location that had local needs not served by mass market shoes from England.
It seems probable that if the Birmingham Shaddocks had originally been Chaddocks, the spelling change happened in Bristol. By the middle of the 18th century there were a lot of Shattocks from Somerset and Shaddocks from Devon that had moved to Bristol, a major center and port in south west England. The founder of the Dennington Shaddocks, John Shaddock, was born in Bristol but he worked and raised his family in Birmingham before leaving for Australia from Liverpool in 1855.
So how did Chaddocks get from the north of England to Bristol? Birmingham is only seventy miles south of Manchester, where Chaddocks are said to have originated. And Birmingham is only seventy-seven miles north of Bristol. But I think the Chaddock founder arrived by ship in Bristol. There is a legend in the Dennington Shaddock family that the family originated in Dorset, where Shattocks, Shaddocks and Chaddocks are mixed up in the local records. It is possible a Dorset Shaddock arrived by ship in Bristol. Or it could have been a Chaddock whose name was written down as Shaddock in the parish records in Bristol where the Devon Shaddock name had appeared previously.
At this point I have identified two branches of the Birmingham Shaddocks that have survived down to the present time. One is the Dennington, Australia Shaddocks and the other is the Locust Valley, New York Shaddocks. They appear to have gradually left Birmingham and remaining branches appear to have slowly withered away.
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