This page discusses the founder of the A8033 Parrishs and Byars in the Virginia colony, Jon. Shaddock. He immigrated from Stogumber in west Somerset, England in 1637. He was an indentured servant, so his reasons for migrating to America may have been purely economic. On the Stogumber page I discuss the decline of the cloth trade in Stogumber that lead to impoverishment of local Shattocks. Jon Shaddock may have come from a family under economic stress.
There are a lot of people with the Parrish surname who trace their genealogy back to colonial Virginia and show up as close relatives to Shattockes in their YDNA results. They are descended from the Shattocke common ancestor Y16884 / Y16895. He was born about 1350. His descendants are found in a small area in the western area of Somerset and northern Devon.
Around 1640 AD in the new colony in Virginia, a Parrish son was born to a Shattocke father. He had a mutation called A8033. Byars and Parrishs who test positive for the A8033 and Y16884 / Y16895 SNPs are not paternally related to other people with the Byars (or Byers or Byas) or Parrish surnames. They are genetically unique, a branch of the Shattocke family.
The most probable scenario, supported by DNA studies, is that a Parrish child was born to a Shattocke father and then a Byars child was born to a Parrish father. This scenario is captured in this combined phylogenetic and genealogical tree. The theory is that the Byars NPE male child was born to Humphrey Parrish (ca. 1670-1743). Click on the graphic to enlarge it.
The tree shows that a Parrish child was born to a Shattocke father about 1640 in Virginia. Around 1710, or two generations later, a Byars child had a Parrish father.
I have created separate pages for the Parrish and Byars branches. On this page I will discuss the Parrish family. On the Byars sub-page I discuss Byars genealogy. The following graphics shows the genetic data I used to build and validate the branching of the Parrish family from its inception with the birth of the Parrish NPE about 1640. Click on the graphic to enlarge it.
The graphic shows the two types of genetic markers that have been used to determine how the family branched from the common ancestor A8033. They are SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) and STRs (Short Tandem Repeats). See the page I have written about these types of mutations.
The SNPs are highlighted in pink. The STRs highlighted in green are legacy markers. The corresponding STRs in light grey color are the more recent mutations of these markers. This means that the branch with the green markers is the older branch.
The Byars - Parrish family tree is based on a study of the DNA test results from Byars and Parrish descendants. If you have subscribed to the Google Groups mailing list, you can download the three spreadsheets I maintain from Google drive. If you want to get a copy of the spreadsheets, contact me.
The key STR that groups the Parrishs and Byars together is the CDY double marker, shown in the "Table Comparing Match STRs" spreadsheet in blue and grey columns, as having the values 37 and 39 for most of the Parrishs and Byars. (Not all Byars and Parrish descendants have these values. The STR markers lose or gain repeats over time.) This STR sets the Parrish - Byars apart from other Shattockes.
In the spreadsheet, I have color coded certain marker results in green to indicate the "signature markers" that indicate descent from a common ancestor. Each of the Shattock branches have their signature markers and the Byars and Parrishs have their own signature markers.
The most important signature marker for Parrishs and Byars is the DYS444=13 marker. The Parrish and Byars are the only branch of Shattockes who show 13 repeats for this marker. All other branches show a value of 12 repeats. However there is an exception among the Byars. Tim Byars and Walter Ryland Byars have a value of 12 for this marker, along with Chris Simmons who has an uncertain genealogy, other than the fact he is positive for A8033. It is likely this branch of the Byars lost a marker, reverting back to the historical value of 12.
We are very grateful to the Byars and Parrish descendants who invested in advanced DNA tests. The formation of this branch of the Shattocke family did not occur until about 1640, which is relatively recent in genetic genealogy terms. So there has not been a lot of time for SNPs and STRs to have mutated. The difficulty of developing the Byars and Parrish family tree is compounded by the fact that Byars and Parrish descendants appear to have fairly stable genes. Add to that the paucity of early colonial records in America, and it is kind of amazing that we are able to peer so successfully into the Byars - Parrish past. The best way you can express your gratitude to the individuals who have purchased DNA tests is to contribute your own results to the spreadsheets I maintain for the family. This will add additional detail to the tree. Notice how many markers in the tree come from Big Y tests. Without those tests we might never have discovered how the tree branched.
The Historical Evidence
Is there a link back to England? Can we find Byars or Parrishs in the south western English county of Somerset where Shattockes originated? Byars or Byas is a name I could not find anywhere in Somerset up to 1700. And I found very few Parrishs. I did find one one close to Stogumber. Byars and Parrishs are from the north of England. Parrish and Byars are not ancient Somerset families. This makes it more likely that it was a male with the name of Shattocke that stepped off the boat in Chesapeake Bay, Virginia from England.
There are two well known connections between Somerset and the Virginia colony. One I discuss on the Stogumber Shattocks page: there is a record of convicts from Stogumber, Somerset being sent to Virginia. And Stogumber is on the road between Taunton and Bridgwater on one end and the port of Minehead on the Bristol Channel. Cloth may have been exported from Stogumber through Minehead.
In his 1720 diary of his travels in Somerset, Robinson Crusoe author and journalist Daniel Dafoe writes of the prosperity and far reach of the port of Minehead on the Bristol Channel coast of Somerset because of its deep harbor:
- Minehead, the best port, and safest harbour, in all these counties, at least, on this side: No ship is so big, but it may come in, and no weather so bad, but the ships are safe when they are in...the town is well built, is full of rich merchants, and has some trade also to Virginia, and the West Indies: They correspond much with the merchants of Barnstable, and Bristol, in their foreign trade...
The reference to Barnstaple is particularly important because it was also a port involved in the export of cloth and there were generations of Shatticks in nearby North Molton who may have arrived in the village from the area around Stogumber: Bicknoller and Crowcombe. The trade route patterns conform to Shattock and Shattick migration patterns.
Early Virginia History
What do we make of the fact that the Byars and Parrishs appear to have a double NPE in their branch of the Shattocke family? I blame it on the chaos in the early Virginia settlement. There was a huge attrition rate because of the climate and novel diseases, meaning parents often died leaving orphans. It was socially chaotic. The early settlers were either high born English gentlemen or the bottom end of the social scale. Virginia was also used as a penal colony for English people convicted of crimes, no matter how petty in our modern view.
According to David Fischer in Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America (Oxford University Press, 1989), the Chesapeake colony was in a considerable state of disarray in its very early history (p. 210). Its population was under 8,000 and it was more of a wild frontier outpost than a stable British colony. When Sir William Berkeley arrived as governor in 1642, he transformed the colony into a British royalist class-based state during his 35 year tenure. The population increased five-fold from 8,000 to 40,000. It was comprised of the second sons of British landed gentry and their servants.
Read this sub-page about Shaddocks in the south during early colonial history.
The Virginia colony was largely populated by indentured servants who were the property of rich plantation owners who treated them as chattel. Some historians describe English indentured servants as slaves. In fact there is a record of a Shattocke in Virginia in 1637. The first landed immigrant Shaddock we encounter in the Virginian records is "Jon." Shaddock, who arrived as an indentured servant in 1637. And his "ownership" was a matter of a legal transaction. In Cavaliers and Pioneers, Abstracts of Virginia Patents and Grants 1623-1666, from Patent Book I, Part I, Nell Marion Nugent provides an account of the first recorded Shaddock's transportation to America (p.65).
ELIZABETH PACKER, Widdowe, 950 acs. Henrico Co., 17 Aug. 1637, p. 454. E. upon 4 Mi. Cr., W. upon land of Seth Ward, S. upon the river & N. into the woods. Due in right of her late husband Serjant William Sharpe & Thomas Packer, whoe at their own costs & charges trans. 19 pers: Rich. Vase, John Thomas, Lewis Jones, Leonard Houghton, William Cooke, Peter Hudsey, Edward Jones, Jon. Ward, William Wooley, 2 Negroe servts. to Serjt Wm. Sharp, Thomas Blancks, Jacob Dewitt, John Haman, Andrew Pratt, Christ. Stevenson, Christ. Beare, Jon. Shaddock, Francis Stone, servants to Tho. Packer.
From The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography:
Elizabeth Parker, widow, 500 acres in the County of Henrico between Curies and Varinas, bounded on the south by the main river, and on the east by Four Mile Creek; due in right of her late husband, Serjeant William Sharpe, who, as appears by certificate of Henrico Court, dated April 25, 1636, transported nine servants and two negroes (names below) and due her 50 more for one of the negroes. By West, July 12, 1636.
Jon. Shaddock was probably under contract to work for Elizabeth Parker for a specified number of years in exchange for his original passage to Virginia and a grant of land. Up to 75% of early Virginia immigrants arrived as indentured servants. Since indentured servants were between the ages of 12 and 24, we can assume John Shaddock was born sometime around 1615.
According to Bernard Bailyn, in his study of the Virginia colony in "The Barbarous Years" (p. 168) the majority of the population of Virginia in its early years was males between the age of sixteen and twenty-five. Jon. Shaddock, the indentured servant from Stogumber would have been twenty-one.
Elizabeth Parker was the daughter of Richard and Mitha Parker. She would eventually marry William Adkins (aka Adekyn or Adkinson). He was born March 28, 1689, and married Elizabeth Parker, on January 17, 1716, in the Saint James Episcopal Church in Henrico County, Virginia. The couple would eventually give up the plantation and move westward to what is now known as Franklin County where William would operate a mill and own and run a farm. It is likely Jon. Shaddock was given his freedom and possibly land well before 1650.
According to Filby, P. William, ed. Passenger and Immigration Lists Index, 1500s-1900s. Farmington Hills, MI, USA: Gale Research, 2012 (p. 294) a John Shaddock arrived in Virginia in 1637. So it is possible that Jon. Shaddock in the 1636 court record and John Shaddock in William's immigrant list are the same person given how slippery dates are in early records. In fact, I have found several cases in the records when "Jon." was used as an abbreviation for "John." John is a very, very common English name and it is found in many Shaddock ancestors, as well as Virginian Shaddock descendants. For example there is a Johnathan Shattick in North Molton, Devon, who shows up in the 1641-2 Protestation Returns. His name appears also to be written as John or Johnathan.
One has to assume that Jon. Shaddock was in his late teens or early twenties to be under contract. So he must have been born around 1615. This is the exact date YFull estimates for the birth of the founder of the Parrishs (A8033). Since the A8033 Byars - Parrish SNP is dated 1615, and there virtually no Byars found in Somerset, and a very few Parrishs, we can safely make the assumption that it was a Shattocke who arrived in Virginia and fathered a Parrish child.
If you read the English Heritage page on this site you will see that the number of adult Shattock males in 1642 was quite small. That was the year the Protestation Returns were gathered in England. All men over the age of eighteen were asked to swear an oath of allegiance to the Protestant religion in 1642. The Protestation Return acts as a kind of census of adult males. There were only 30 male Shattocks who were enumerated. There were two Shattocks not counted because they had made the pilgrimage to the Massachusetts Bay colony in New England. And there was one male Shattock in Virginia: Jon. Shaddock. (Shaddock is the spelling Shattock took in the south.) This narrows our search for the birthplace of Jon. Shaddock down to a handful of villages in Somerset, and one in Devon. I keep a digital shoe box of all the records I have found over the years for Shattocks in early English history. The Word document narrows our search for Jon. Shaddock down to a village called Stogumber in west Somerset.
Lesley Morgan, who is a local historian in Stogumber, has written that there were Stogumber village residents transported to the colony in Virginia during its formation. So there was a connection between Stogumber and the colony. The most likely candidate for the Virginia servant is John Shattock born in 1616 in Stogumber to John Shattock. His father was born in 1595 and shows up in the Protestation Returns in 1642. And it may have been his brother Philip who moved to Taunton and is found in the Protestation Returns there. This makes it most likely that John Shattock born March 7, 1615 was from a family lineage that survived to 1640.
Here is the entry in the Stogumber parish records of his baptism.
The Parrish NPE
So how is it that Parrishs and Byars whose genealogical paper trails end up in 17th century Viriginia acquire the Shattock genetics?
The early Virginia settlement on Chesapeake Bay was chaotic and barbarous. It is documented in Bernard Bailyn's "The Barbarous Years." He quotes this passage from the leading archaeologists of 17th century Virginia, describing life for the average Virginia resident.
He adds (p. 172): "in the grinding reality of small-scale tobacco farming, where masters lived and worked intimately with servants, their clothing and appearance in no way different form their hirelings, relationships, however benevolently begun, easily frayed and became brutal. Some masters, especially the most marginal and desperate, drove their servants hard, stirring resistance that could become violent and that could lead to savage reprisals. Murders were reported. Women were commonly exposed to sexual exploitation: more than 10 percent of all children born to immigrant women in seventeenth-century Maryland were bastards."
Families were destroyed, fragmented and recombined by the high rate of death. During the 17th and 18th century there was a huge attrition in the population, primarily through disease. Between 1607 and 1624 about 6,000 colonists came to Virginia. In 1624 only 1,200 survived. Among the survivors, there is another factor that explains why Virginian Shaddock descendants are difficult to find. Even when the attrition rate is much lower, only 15% of males have male descendants after twelve generations carrying their name. The majority of men do not have direct male descendants due to infant mortality, failure to beget children for one reason or another, having female children and no males, or a single male and several females or other forms of attrition, like wars and famine.
Bailyn (p. 170): "30 percent of all infants died in their first year; overall 47 percent of the population was dead by age twenty, and those who reached that age would live, on average, only another twenty-six years." It would not be surprising if Jon. Shaddock died when still young, and his wife remarried and a son would take on his new father's surname: Parrish. Or that only a few decades later the same thing would happen to a Parrish child who became a Byars. "The consequences of the devastating death rate and reproductive deficiencies transformed the structure of family life. Family life was twisted, devastated, by early death. In Charles County, Maryland, marriages lasted on average only nine years before one partner died. In Virginia most children lost at least one parent by the time they reached majority; over a third lost both. In Middlesex County a quarter of all children lost one or both parents before age five; half did so by age thirteen; and almost three-quarters by age twenty-one or by the time of marriage. Old people were rare. Few children ever knew their grandparents and orphanage was common. Thirty percent of all children were orphans before their eighteenth birthday and were left in the care of uncles, family friends, legal guardians, godparents, and above all stepparents."
I think this is the reason why Parrish family historians run into a brick wall when they attempt to tract their direct ancestors back to the 17th century in Virginia, quite aside from the fact that the Civil War and other calamities destroyed what parish records were once in existence. The fragmented and reconstituted families simply make finding the genealogical path through the jungle impossible. We have to rely on the DNA evidence to reconstruct Parrish, Byars and Shaddock lineages.
The DNA evidence does show us where Parrishs and Byars fit in the Shattock family tree.
Stogumber in west Somerset.
It is also noteworthy that the Byars - Parrish descendants and the Y19751 Stogumber descendants are 36-39 and 36-37 respectively for the CDY marker. It appears that 36-38 is the ancestral number of repeats for CDY. This means that the Byars - Parrish lineage gained a repeat and the Y19751 Shattocks lost a repeat.
So how do we know that Stogumber is home town for Parrish and Byars carrying the Shattock Y chromosome and their female descendants? There were only about 33 Shattocke males alive in the world in 1642. Almost all of them are accounted for. We know that Jon. Shaddock had to have been born around 1615 to be under a labor contract. John Shattock born Mar. 7, 1615 is the only John Shattock who is born in England about the right time. And records indicate that Stogumber residents were transported to Virginia.
The paper trails of A8033 Parrish lineages and finds that they all seem to lead to Goochland county in Virginia. Goochland was formed out of Henrico County, becoming the western-most county in central Virginia. Henrico County is where Jon. Shaddock is found in the legal documents previously quoted.
It is probable that Jon. Shaddock was A8033 or the son or grandson of the man born with the A8033 mutation.
To read about the home village from which the Parrish founder, Jon. Shaddock, migrated from read this page: Stogumber Shattocks.