West Bagborough Shatticks
West Bagborough is a village and civil parish in Somerset, England, situated 5 miles (8.0 km) north of Taunton in the Taunton Deane district. The village has a population of 358. The village lies on the south-west slopes of the Quantock Hills. In October 2001 a hoard of 4th-century Roman silver was discovered in the village. It became known as the West Bagborough Hoard. Wikipedia
West Bagborough is on the edge of the Quantock Hills, up the valley from Taunton, and on the way to Minehead. It is equidistant (five miles) between Taunton and Stogumber. Minehead was a major shipping point for wool and cloth. West Bagborough is a very, very small parish, with a population of 348 people in 2014. Evidence indicates the Shattocks in the area were involved in the cloth trade and had business relationships with the major exporter of cloth, the Wolcotts of Tolland. The largest population of Shattocks in the area are found south of Stogumber village in the Vexford manor area where there were fulling mills. The West Bagborough Shattocks probably sold their handiwork in Tolland and Stogumber.
The village has always been tiny. In 1894 the population was only 107. We happen to know the population of the village in the 14th century. When the plague ravished the village its population was reduced to 64 people over the age of 14. The residents were so traumatized by the plague that they did not return to their homes around the manor house, choosing instead to build new homes away from the infected area. So what were Shattocks doing in this tiny village on the slopes of the Quantock Hills? The first Shattock recorded as living there left a will in 1546. Was he from nearby Stogumber? Was he a Stogumber Shattock? Let's find out.
Alexander Shattick and the First Family of West Bagborough
The important rule about Shattock genealogy is that the farther back in time you go, the fewer Shattocks there are in the records because the common ancestor of Shattockes (or Shaddocks) lived in the late 14th century during the scourge of the "Black Death." Some two hundred years later, in the 1641 census, there are less than 35 male Shattockes over the age of 18 in the entire world. Twelve of those have migrated out of Somerset leaving less than 25 eighteen or older Shattockes in west Somerset, including fathers and sons. The second rule is that certain Shattocke Christian names make it easier to match names to places because Shattockes males named their sons after themselves, their fathers and other male relatives. Certain Christian names gel around places, like James in the Milverton lineages, William in Stogumber and West Bagborough, Thomas, John and Henry in the Staplegrove, Norton Fitzwarren, and West Monkton areas. For West Bagborough and Bishops Lydeard Shattocks it is Alexander, John and William. The third rule is that in early history Shattocke family lineages stayed in place for centuries. Part of the reason was due to the wealth they acquired from the cloth trade. They used land purchases to store and expand their wealth. Under the entail property rights, the land accumulated by Shattockes could only be passed to first born sons. Their other sons would inherit the cloth making trade of their fathers and would earn money that they could use to buy more land. If the family fell into poverty, the poor laws confined them to the parishes they were born in. If they tried to travel to other parishes, they were often forcefully returned to their birth parish. Finally, even farm laborers who found work in other parishes at hiring fairs tended to return to their home parishes. (See in particular "Servants in Husbandry In Early Modern England," by Ann Kussmaul, Cambridge University Press, 1981).
These factors appear to come into play with the West Bagborough Shattocks and their eventual migration out of West Bagborough. The parish records of West Bagborough reveal a multi-generational family who lived and worked in West Bagborough for a century and a half.
The Alexander Name
Alexander is an exceedingly rare Christian name in early Shattock history. It is not found in the other major Shattocke lineages, including the Stogumber, North Molton, Staplegrove or Milverton Shattocks. The 1546 will of Alexander Shattock is the first record of a Shattock in the parish.
Alexander Shattock shows up as one of the accused who participated in a riot sometime between 1509 and 1545.
- Reference: STAC 2/26/51. Description: Court of Star Chamber: Proceedings, Henry VIII. BUNDLE XXVI. PLAINTIFF: Charles Walgrave, Richard Pollard, Robert Cheverell, and John Callard DEFENDANT: Alexander Shattock, Richard Shattock, Thomas Smele, Thomas Bodye, Thomas Northe, and Christopher Mollyns PLACE OR SUBJECT: Riot in the manor of Lydyard COUNTY:Wilts. Date: 22/04/1509-28/01/1547. Held by: The National Archives, Kew
The reference to "Lydyard, Wiltshire" is most probably to a manor that has had various spellings over time: Lydiard Tregoze. It is on the western edge of Swindon in the county of Wiltshire, just next door to Somerset.
Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset (c. 1500 - 1552)
Midgehall, which was on the southern edge of the manor, was was granted to Sir Edward Seymour, Viscount Beauchamp (cr. Duke of Somerset 1546–7). History has judged Sir Edward as a politician without a politician's acumen. Wikipedia:
- Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset KG (c. 1500 – 22 January 1552), was Lord Protector of England during part of the Tudor period from 1547 until 1549 during the minority of his nephew, King Edward VI (1547–1553). Despite his popularity with the common people, his policies often angered the gentry and he was overthrown. He was the eldest brother of Queen Jane Seymour (d. 1537), the third wife of King Henry VIII.
Seymour threatened the gentry is two broad ways. "The first, sometimes called the Prayer Book Rebellion, arose mainly from the imposition of church services in English, and the second, led by a tradesman called Robert Kett, mainly from the encroachment of landlords on common grazing ground." So it is possible Alexander Shattick was on the wrong side of Protestant England and on the wrong side of the political power in England. The riot occurred on the grounds of the Lydiard Tregoze manor. Was he protesting for or against the Duke? Given what I know about the West Bagborough Shattocks, I think he was a cloth tradesman.
John Shattock (from Leicester) offers a point of view, in a study he made if Lydiard Manor, enclosures and the Dissolution of the monasteries.
"Lidyard Tozer was butter country in the 16th century. Sheep farming there was just low key and incidental. Although I’ve attached an extract the whole document can be found at this address https://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/wilts/vol4/pp43-64
Dairy cattle apparently provided the main source of income in this area although some dairy farmers would also keep sheep to browse pastures but their wool was only secondary to their main purpose and formed only a limited portion of income. Butter was the main produce around Lidyard Tozer and to the North it was cheese.
[Lyyard Tozer is the site of an abandoned village.] Villages were destroyed by the Lords of the Manors taking away people’s homes and livelihoods which of course gave rise to the riots just so that the rich powerful landowners could increase their wealth even more. This was due to gentry seizing land and property to enclose it for sheep farming. Sheep farming was a major use of land in Leicestershire and led to Robert Bakewell of Leicestershire in the 1740s developing early genetic selective breeding that later influenced both Charles Darwen and Gregor Mendel.
The enclosure or inclosure of land by the gentry did come about by increased stock farming of cattle and, particularly sheep as wool became more important, because the animals could be left unattended and not only did this exclude peasant farmers from previous open land, it also created a shortage of available work because the land owners didn’t need workers to supervise their wandering livestock. Increased poverty and loss of housing made men desperate leading to revolt and riot.
The enclosure of land in Bagborough was quite late taking place, compared to other locations, and apparently didn’t formally happen until the early 19th Century (1806). The Quantock Hills are still largely free from enclosure and although they are mainly privately owned, as small individual parcels of land, Quantock Common is still open to public access.
My thoughts are that if Alexander Shattock was a man of substance, rather than a peasant, he wouldn’t be dependent on farming his stock on common land, and therefore I can’t see why he would be protesting about the inclosures. I think the same argument would apply if he was rioting about land he used for sheep grazing in Bagborough unless he was a man of both influence and conscience and had travelled the long distance to Lidyard Tozer to protest to Seymour on behalf of the Bagborough peasants. My guess is that Alexander Shattock was a Catholic, and that this was more about your part of the theory that he was “on the wrong side of Protestant England”. As you know, Seymour was actively involved in the enforcement of the Prayer Book in common English. I suppose the answer will be in the content of the whole document and maybe a visit to the Somerset Heritage Centre to read it would reveal the answer.
Dr. Michael Shattock responds: "I think it is extremely unlikely that Alexander was a Catholic bearing in mind the predeliction of all the Somerset Shattocks towards non-conformity in religious life. Somerset's biography in the Dictionary of National Biography gives us some clues. Somerset was himself a radical in religious and social matters, as was the young Edward VI, and he launched a commission against the enclosure movement in 1548. It is likely that Alexander, as a landowner, as one must presume he was, with strong commercial interests in wool was in favour of enclosures of common land. Somerset, in fact, seems to have had a strong interest in wool because much later he brought over from Holland some families of Dutch cloth workers and settled them in Glastonbury. The West country was a pretty riotous place in those days which may have made the authorities sensitive when middle class landowners came all the way from Somerset to protest about what they saw as an infringement of their right to do what was going on all over the country. (As it happens I drove from home down to Broadway in Gloucestershire last week along country roads and was constantly coming up against right angle bends where the roads skirted round fields, obvious evidence of the effects of the enclosure movement eliminating access across common land, The Cotswolds was, of course, very much into profiting from wool in the same period.) Apparently the commission that Somerset launched was quite ineffective. So Alexander seems to have been on the side of history but not on the side of the common man."
It was Henry VIII who brought about the Dissolution of the monasteries, dealing a heavy blow to the power of the Catholic church in England, and led to political machinations between Catholics and Protestants in the reign of King Henry and his heir after him, Elizabeth I. Alexander is not the only Shattock to be caught up in this turmoil. Under Elizabeth I, William Shattock, billeted in a garrison on the border between England and Scotland, became embroiled in a struggle between the local governor and the head of the local army protecting England from Scottish Catholics. (See A Real "Game of Thrones" In Elizabeth England.) And Shattocks in west Somerset joined the local militia to protect the coast from a possible invasion of the Spanish Armada intent on restoring the rule of the Catholic religion to England. (See Shattocks Defending the Kingdom Against the Spanish Armada.)
Professor George W. Barnard adds this important perspective on the turmoil in the country at the time:
- The dissolution of the monasteries in the late 1530s was one of the most revolutionary events in English history. There were nearly 900 religious houses in England, around 260 for monks, 300 for regular canons, 142 nunneries and 183 friaries; some 12,000 people in total, 4,000 monks, 3,000 canons, 3,000 friars and 2,000 nuns. If the adult male population was 500,000, that meant that one adult man in fifty was in religious orders. (Wikipedia)
Alexander and his relative Richard, were weavers of independent means and thought and a newly awakened sense of their political and social freedom. That may have been his motive for traveling all the way to Wiltshire to protest.
It is significant they were tried at the Court of Star Chamber. It was established as a way for less powerful people to get justice in a time when the scales of justice was tipped in favor of the rich and powerful. Wikipedia:
- The Star Chamber (Latin: Camera stellata) was an English court of law which sat at the royal Palace of Westminster, from the late 15th century to the mid-17th century (c. 1641), and was composed of Privy Councillors and common-law judges, to supplement the judicial activities of the common-law and equity courts in civil and criminal matters. The Star Chamber was originally established to ensure the fair enforcement of laws against socially and politically prominent people so powerful that ordinary courts would probably hesitate to convict them of their crimes. However, it became synonymous with social and political oppression through the arbitrary use and abuse of the power it wielded.
One of the accusers, Richard Pollard, is possibly the Pollard with a dark history in Somerset in the early part of the 16th century. Sir Richard Pollard (ca. 1505-1542) was Member of Parliament for Taunton in 1536, and for Devon in 1540 and 1542. He played a major role in assisting Thomas Cromwell in administering the Dissolution of the monasteries. He was employed as a surveyor who visited the premises and made a detailed valuation of the house's assets and income. When the property was put up for sale, he was in a position to assess its resale value, purchase it, and like a modern vulture capitalist, divide up the property and sell it for an enormous profit, often to former tenants. See the Wikipedia entry.
Forde Abbey whichs Richard Pollard owned.
"Alexander" is unique, and the first occurrence of the Christian name in Shattock history, so this was probably Alexander Shattock who died in 1546 in West Bagborough. He was born about 1495 based on the ages of his children and grandchildren. Was Richard Shattock his brother, father or more distant relative?
Alexander Shattick may have had a son Alexander, but there is no record of that son. Instead it appears that his son John carried his surname forward. How do we know John, who was born about 1520, and died Mar. 1, 1565, is his son? Because John named one of his son's Alexander and three of his four sons named their sons Alexander. Plus it appears that the family money passed down to John and then after he died his widow Joanna until she died.
Map showing the relationship between West Bagborough and villages involved in the cloth trade (although Bishops Lydeard is not known to be one of them). Combe Florey would have been one of the places Alexander Shattock, a descendant of the West Bagborough Shattocks who moved to Bishops Lydeard, may have moved to after the decline of the export cloth market. Norton Fitzwarren to the south, now a suburb of Taunton, and its neighbor Staplegrove, are known to have been heavily involved in the cloth trade, particularly in the area of Norton Fitzwarren called Langford. A lot of Shattockes are found in the parish records of these villages.
The evidence is that Alexander Shattick was heavily involved in the cloth trade. Certainly the village's location on the slopes of the Quantock Hills, where only subsistence farming was practiced, suggests the West Bagborough Shattocks were working in the wool and cloth trades. They were probably also involved in skilled trades that the cloth market supported, like carpentry. Plus there were herds of sheep providing wool. This is the key.
There is a will in 1638 that most likely refers to Alexander Shattock. It is by a man who lived in Comb Florey which was a town involved in cloth handiwork.
- John Crosse alias Ayshe the elder of Combe Florey, yeoman c. 1538 “unto Thomas Shatoke son unto Sander [Alexander] Shatocke A cowe that is owt at Di mone “ … Sander and John Ashe at willis my overseers and the saide Sander Shatocke to have For his labour my longe newe broch and xl pence in money.
John Crosse makes Alexander Shattock an overseer of his will, indicating how close the relationship was. The Crosse family were close friends of the nearby Wolcott family in Tolland who had a fulling mill and exported cloth through the Bristol Channel ports.
John Wolcott, a descendant of the Wolcotts of Somerset, details the relation in his family history.
- John Wolcot and Agnes Crosse x Aishe" were married at Lydiard St. Lawrence in 1579. The will of Thomas Crosse of Tolland, husbandman, dated 1583, requests that "his good friend" John Woolcot be one of his overseers. This was probably the Thomas Crosse who married Elizabeth Standish, niece of William Standish who purchased Gauldon Manor. The will of Francis Crosse of Tolland, dated 23 January 1588 also has John Woolcott as overseer, and John and Henry Wolcott as witnesses. These men must have been Agnes' relatives, and they were all probably related to Walter Crosse, AB, who was the Tolland parish priest from 1480 to 1517, and John Crosse, AM, who was the Tolland parish priest from 1517 to 1554.
There were marriages between Shattocks and Crosses as well: Alice Shattocke married John Crosse in 1587 in Combe Florey. William Shattock married Mary Crosse, daughter of Christopher, in 1595 in Combe Florey. Henry Shattock married Joan Crosse in July, 1620. There appears to be a close connection between the Shattocks of Tolland, Combe Florey and West Bagborough, all coth villages.
Combe Florey was known to have residents involved in the finishing of cloth. It is less than two miles northwest of Bishops Lydeard and Tolland is less than three miles further northwest. Johanne Shattocke from West Bagborough married and moved to Combe Florey. She was born Johanne Shattocke in 1598 in West Bagborough, the daughter of William Shattick (1564-1642), a descendant of Alexander, the founder. She married John Miles who was born in Combe Florey. She moved to Combe Florey and spent the rest of her life there.
We have the will for Johanne's father William, who died in 1639, probated in 1642. Among the people who are his beneficiaries is somebody he calls his "apprentice." So William Shattick had a trade. Was it weaving or some other form of cloth handiwork? Or it is possible he was a carpenter. (You will see why in a moment.) William did not pass down land. All his worldly positions were goods and money. He appears to have lots of money. Was it from weaving?
Church and house.
Let's step back and examine the parish records at West Bagborough.
The West Bagborough parish records do not begin until 1558. But we have an advantage in piecing the records together that gives us confidence that there was only one Shattock family in the parish in the 16th century. There were less than ten baptisms in the church each year, sometimes as few as five. All Shatticks appear to be descended from a single man and his wife: John Shattick. So there was probably only one Shattock family in West Bagborough in the 15th century and well into the 16th century, unlike nearby Stogumber where at least three families are found when parish records began 1559. That tells us that there was probably no Shattocks living there before 1500, and if there were, they had left or died out.
The first name to appear in the parish record is John Shattick, who died Mar. 1, 1565. After him came his sons and their children. There is also a tax list in 1581 that helps us identify him. On the list are two names: George Shattock and Joanna Shattock. Joanna is his wife and George is his son. They inherited Alexander's money and property. In genealogy you follow the money.
There is another will that Lemuel Shattuck, the chronicler of Shattucks of America, glosses. Apparently a "friend of ours" (p. 13, Memorials) found the will and provided him with details from it. It was the will of John's son Alexander. He writes he found "the will of Alexander Shattocke of Bagborough, proved in 1588, which mentions sons Alexander, Robert, and William, daughters Joan and Dorothy, wife Susan, executrix, brother Richard Shattocke, and witnessed by George Shattocke and others."
These names match names we find in the West Bagborough parish records, in the right chronology. We are lucky because the West Bagborough records are very complete. It was messy writing but at least Thomas Arundel, the vicar, kept accurate books.
A reasonable assumption is that John Shattick, who died in 1565, was the son of Alexander Shattock, who died one generation earlier. And John Shattick was the father of Alexander and his brother Richard. The spelling of the last name of the witness to the will, George Shattick (spelled "Shattock" in the tax list), suggests he was also born in West Bagborough, since that is the only parish in Somerset using that spelling of the surname at the time. In fact he died in West Bagborough in 1590, two years after Alexander. "George" is a name that also shows up in the Bishops Lydeard parish records and is very rare elsewhere. There is a George Shattocke born in Stogumber in 1584, but he would have been too young to have been a witness on the 1588 will. And there is a George Shattocke who is taxed in Nettlecombe (two and a half miles west and north of Stogumber) in 1581. Once again, too young to be a witness on the will. But it does suggest that the names William, George and Samuel may link the West Bagborough Shatticks to the Stogumber branch of the Shattock family.
This is how I have reconstructed the Shattick family from the West Bagborough parish records.
Alexander Shattock (ca. 1495 - 1546) (leaves a will)
John (ca. 1520 - 1565) and Johanna Shattick
1. John Shattick (ca. 1540 - 1615) and Sara (-1616)
Children: Joan b. 1561, John b. 1561, William b. 1564, Sara b. 1567, Maude born 1569, ? daughter 1573, Sara b. 1575 and Alexander b. 1577.
2. Richard Shattick (ca. 1545-1597) and Maud Longham (may have had second wife)
Children: Arthur b. 1569, Joan b. 1571, Gregory b. 1573, Samuel b. 1575, Magruder b. 1577, Alice b. 1579, Robert b. 1582.
3. George Shattick (ca. 1548-1597) and wife?
Children: Ursula b. 1568, Agnes b. 1571 and Rebecca b. 1573)
4. Alexander Shattick (ca. 1552-1588) and Susan
Children: Richard ca. 1577, Alexander b. 1579, Robert b. 1582, and William b. 1587, daughters Joan b. 1580 and Dorothy b. 1584
Thomas Shattock (identified as son of Alexander in the 1538 will of John Crosse of nearby Combe Florey)
Florence Shattick (ca. 1525)
Agnes Shattick (ca. 1530) marries John Jacob
John Shattick senior (ca. 1520) named his first son John b. 1540, indicating his resolve to carry on the name.
Where Was Alexander Shattock ca. 1495-1546, the first Shattock recorded as a West Bagborough resident, born? The spelling of his surname as "Shattock" suggests he was not born in West Bagborough. There were only a handful of Shattock men alive in 1495, which is going to make it easier to find his birth place if it was not in West Bagborough. I would guess from his given name that he was not born the first born son of a Shattock that would have entitled him to his father's land, so he may have moved to another village where weaving or some other cloth trade was prospering. West Bagborough would be attractive because it is in the middle of herds of sheep. Or he was simply moving closer to the Tolland or Stogumber markets. He could have apprenticed himself to a weaver in West Bagborough.
Actually the will of John Crosse in 1538 provides a very strong clue. He identifies "Thomas" Shattock as Alexander's son. John Shattock was probably not born as yet. So that makes Thomas the first born. Alexander had two boys named Thomas and John and a couple of daughters, Agnes and Florence.
I consider "Thomas" to be a signature name for the Staplegrove Shattocks because it dominates the parish records and Taunton Deane tenant list for three centuries. It is relatively uncommon in other branches, except the North Molton Shatticks. On first glance, the most likely origin for the West Bagborough Shattocks, based on geography and the cloth trade, is Stogumber. In fact West Bagborough is equidistant from Stogumber and Staplegrove.
The Stogumber parish records do not record a Thomas Shattock baptism ever. There is a Thomas Shatock (sic) who is in the 1642 Protestation Return. And here is the most interesting record: there is a Thomas Shattock who died and was buried in Stogumber in 1563, most likely the Thomas in the 1642 Protestation Return. Was this the Thomas Shattock who is in the will of John Crosse? Given how few Shattocks there were in the world at the time, and given there was not a Thomas Shattock lineage in Stogumber, I would guess that Thomas Shattock moved to Stogumber from West Bagborough and died there. He may have been a weaver who moved closer to a fulling mill in the Stogumber area.
Perhaps Alexander Shattock (ca. 1495-1546) was a son of the Thomas Shattocke who shows up on the list of tenant farmers in Staplegrove in 1483. That Thomas Shattocke looks like the son of the Thomas Shattocke who is listed as a tenant farmer in 1450. Alexander might have named his first son after his father and grandfather, and named his second son John.
What is certain is that the West Bagborough branch of the Shattocks formed about the same time as the other major branches of the Shattocks formed: during the latter half of the 15th century. This makes sense because the population of England was rebounding at this time after the devastation of the plague, famines and war. There was also a high attrition rate of children up to the age of sixteen due to disease. The result is only one son managed to survive on average. DNA shows that the common ancestor of Shattocks was born about 1350 right at the beginning of the black plague's onslaught on the population. There were only a handful of Shattock or Shaddock families in 1500: perhaps five or six. Alexander of West Bagborough (1495-1546) was one of them.
West Bagborough Diaspora
If you examine the West Bagborough parish records and consult the tax levies in the village, you see a phenomena that also seems to be true of the North Molton and Stogumber records. The Shattocks and Shatticks in these villages seem to have dispersed in the early to mid 17th century from the villages where they had lived for more than a century, or in the case of Stogumber, two centuries. There is direct evidence that the cloth export market had declined in Stogumber by the early 17th century. A major portion of the cloth export market had moved to London, and there is evidence that during the 17th century there was a migration of Shattocks out of west Somerset to London and its outlying areas.
I have collected the evidence of what I call the first great Shattock or Shaddock diaspora from west Somerset in the Diaspora article. During the 17th century Shattocks appear in London parishes, and in the records of Virginia, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania. The evidence of a diaspora of Shattocks from the cloth trade is found in Philip Ashford's study of the west Somerset woolen industry (p. 171), which I discuss on the Stogumber page. Richard Wolcott (c. 1610-1658) was a fuller in Stogumber: "Richard had been in possession of a tucking mill and two clothing racks in the village since before 1634 when the facilities had been described as ‘in decay’." The Wolcotts were major cloth exporters, and one member of the family migrated to the Massachusetts Bay colony along with other Shattocks from the Stogumber area, including William the founder of Shattucks in America who was a weaver.
The Shatticks of West Bagborough seem to have left the village. There were three Alexander Shatticks born in West Bagborough, two in 1577 and one in 1579. Alexander Shattock of West Bagborough moved to Bishops Lydeard. I have not fully explored the other parishes in west Somerset so I don't know if other members of the family moved to other villages. But the fact is the descendants of Alexander Shattock (ca. 1495-1546) are not found in the West Bagborough parish records after 1640. And in the 1641 Protestation return, the only male Shattock over the age of eighteen who appears on the list is John Shattocke. He cannot be traced back to the Alexander family.
The West Bagborough Shatticks may share a distant common ancestor with the North Molton Shatticks. For about 100 years from 1500 to 1600 the spelling "Shattick" dominates both the West Bagborough and North Molton parish records. There are two Shatticks found in 17th century London who may have been part of the West Bagborough diaspora of Shatticks.
North Molton Shatticks share another parallel with the West Bagborough Shatticks. The branch was founded by Thomas Shattock or Shattick who was born around the same time as Alexander, about 1500. And the evidence is that he too was engaged in the cloth trade.
I discuss the export cloth market and the diaspora it caused extensively on the Stogumber page.
The Stepney, London Shatticks
The particular way the Shattock or Shaddock name is spelled in West Bagborough, "Shattick," provides us with a clue as to where West Bagborough Shatticks migrated. The surname is found in the parish records in Saint Dunstan, Stepney, London.
Saint Dunstan church, Stepney, London
The great east London parish of Stepney extended from the Tower of London to the River Lea. In "The Shadwell Waterfront in the Eighteenth Century," Derek Morris and Kenneth Cozens describe the area as "the natural home of mariners and merchants and early explorers."
The parish records of the local church, Saint Dunstan, show Shatticks living in the parish for over a century. The first Shattick names found are Henry and Alexander. The parish records reveal their presence in 1639 and 1643, at a time when Shattocks were abandoning West Bagborough in Somerset. In fact across London and its suburbs you see the sudden emergence of many Shattocks. In the 16th century there are records of seven Shattocks and their families in London parishes. By 1650 there were twenty-one.
Henry Shatticke, Shipwright
Henry and Jane Shutticke are found in Saint Dunstan parish records. Henry married Jane Duffield in St. Dunstan Oct. 24, 1639. They had Henry (1639), Richard (1645) and John (1662). The transcriptions of the surname is all over the place: Shutticke, Shettick, Shidducke or Shaddocke. He was probably Henry Shattock who died in Stepney in 1695, leaving a will. He is described as a "shipwright." This suggests he was from a family of carpenters. That would explain how he might have found his way from west Somerset to London. He moved to an area where shipbuilding and repairs would have provided him with carpentry work. The authors go on to identify some of the shipbuilders in the area. It is possible, but probably not likely, that his son Richard born in 1645 married Ebet and moved to Bishop's Lydeard. I explore that possibility in the Bishops Lydeard page.
Shaddicks from Apploedore on the coast of Devon crossed the Bristol Channel in the early 19th century to find work as shipwrights in the newly established Royal Navy shipyards of Pembrokeshire, southwest Wales. This diaspora had a similar economic bias. In the case of Devon Shaddicks and Shaddocks the pressure to move came from the rapid decline of agricultural labor with the industrialization of agriculture. Subsequent generations became sailors and merchants. We seem the same phenomena in the diaspora of West Bagborough Shatticks to the shipyards of Stepney.
Detail of Bludworth and Shadwell Docks and the Mast Yard reproduced from John Rocque, Map of London, Westminster and Southwark. The docks are where Shatticks went to work building ships and repairing them. Their children would eventually fall in love with the adventure and opportunities of the sailing ships hoisting their sails on the Thames.
Samuel Shattock, Mariner
An example is Samuel Shattock. We have a snapshot of a Shattock far from his home in England:
- On Sept. 1, 1690, Samuel Shattock, age 57, England, was aboard the "Constant John" when it docked in Virginia (Virginia Colonial Records, 1607-1853, Survey Report No. 4235 p. 3). Samuel Shattock of Blackwell, Middlesex, sailor aged 57. [born 1631]At the beginning of November 1688 he joined the Constant John at Barbados as Mate and remained in service until he was discharged in the Thames at the end of May in 1690. Thomas Moseley and William Grill joined the ship at Virginia in February 1689/90. From English Adventurers and Emigrants, 1661-1733, Examinations in Equity Causes Vol. 80 Author: Coldham, Peter Wilson Date of Publication: 1985.
Samuel Shattock was apparently a sailor on a ship plying the regular West Indies to London tobacco trade route. We have this account of a trip aboard the ship liberty recorded in 1674. (Virginia Colonial Records, 1607-1853, Court of Chancery Records C24-C243 p. 7)
Samuel Shattock, March 2, 1974-75
Mate of the Liberty which left for Virginia in April 1674 wth Beale as master. Should have left the Thames earlier. Arrived in the Rappahannock in July where tobacco was laden for the account of Captain John Custis, some of which was damaged because it was not stowed properly.
The name "Samuel" is found among the Stepney Shattocks in London. Samuel married Eliz Young Jun. 21, 1660 at the church Holy Trinity Minories, City of London. The church found itself in Stepney when a boundary change in 1899 occurred. Samuel was thirty when he married and there is no record of children until 1667. Was he at sea? Samuel and Elizabeth Shaddock (sic) had their first child in 1667, which means Samuel would be 36. They had ten children (one set of twins). He appears to have died in 1705 and was buried at the Saint Dunstan church.
It is likely that Samuel was the son of Samuel and Mary. His father married Mary Snell Jul. 19, 1628. Samuel junior would be born three years later, in 1631. This reference comes from Lemuel Shattucks Memorials.
William Shattock, Merchant
William Shattock was a merchant in London.
- Reference: PROB 11/374/559. Description: Will of William Shattock, Merchant of London. Date: 19 December 1683. Held by: The National Archives, Kew.
William is a name found among West Bagborough and Stogumber Shattocks. It is uncommon elsewhere in west Somerset and Devon.
John Shattock, Mariner
There were also Shattock mariners around this time. Here is a case where John Shattock, mariner, was involved in an incident during Queen Anne's War (1702-1713).
- Deposition of John Shattock, mariner, Bermuda, April 21, 1712. A Frenchman at St. Thomas' informed deponent in March that the French intended to fit out a fleet at Martinique, Guardalupe and St. Domingo and to take Bermuda by surprize. Signed, John Shattock. 1 p. Calendar of State Papers Colonial, America and West Indies, Volume 27, 1712-1714. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1926.
Richard Shaddock was assessed for land in 1744 in Stepney.
Later in the century we have the wills of Joseph Shaddock, mariner (1759) and John Shaddock , mariner (1763).
The authors of the study of the Stepney waterfront quote John Noorthouck, who describes the area as a kind of "lowlife sailortown," "chiefly inhabited by seafaring persons, and those whose business depends upon shipping in various capacities, are in general close and ill built: therefore afford very little worthy [of] observation, except the parish churches."
Henry Shatticke the shipwright must have arrived in London with Alexander Shatticke. Alexander married Elizabeth Culham in the same year in Saint Dunstan, Stepney, Apr. 22, 1639. This is usually what you find. A member ventures to a distant settlement, and fellow family members follow when that individual becomes settled.
Four years later Alexander Shatticke married Clemenyce Burden Jul. 2, 1643 in Saint Clement Danes, Westminster, less than three miles from Saint Dunstan. Are these the two Alexander Shatticks born in West Bagborough 1577 and 1579, or sons of West Bagborough Shatticks who arrived in London earlier? If they are the West Bagborough Shatticks, they would have married in their late thirties. Their are no children listed. That makes me think these were second marriages. Regardless, the name "Alexander" and the spelling of the surname, "Shatticke" indicates the Alexanders were West Bagborough expatriates.
Was Henry from West Bagborough? There is no record of a Henry there at this time or in the previous century. Henry married Joan Crosse in Combe Florey in July 1620. There is that surname again: Crosse. Combe Florey is closely associated with West Bagborough Shattocks descending from Alexander.
Henry and Anne Shattock baptized a child Samuel Shattock in Saint Dunstan Nov. 6, 1692. "Samuel" is a Christian name we find in Tolland and West Bagborough. It links the Stepney Shattocks together. Samuel and Elizabeth had a large family who were baptized in Saint Dunstan: George (1667), his twin Anne, Samuel born in 1668 and dies in 1674, Samuel born the same year, Thomas in 1675, John in 1677, Mary in 1681 and Francis in 1682. With the exception of "Francis," these are names found in West Bagborough. And the interesting thing is that "Francis" is a signature given name in the Bishops Lydeard parish records.
There were five more "Shattock" families who baptized their children in Saint Dunstan in the 18th century. After that the individuals either dispersed or the direct male line ended.
St. Mary's Bishops Lydeard. There are Shattocks found in the graveyard.
Alexander in Bishop's Lydeard
Alexander is the name that binds the Bishops Lydeard Shattocks to the West Bagborough Shatticks. The earliest record of a Shattocke name in the Bishops Lydeard parish records is the birth of Christian Shatocke (sic) in January, 1611. His father was Alexander. Given that "Alexander" is not found anywhere else in Somerset at this time, other than West Bagborough, we can probably assume a Alexander moved two miles south of West Bagborough to Bishops Lydeard to work and raise a family.
In the 1641 Protestation Return, an Alexander Shattock shows up on the list of Bishops Lydeard residents, thirty years later. He would have been around 63 years of age. There are two other names on the 1641 Protestation Return, William and John.
It may have been Alexander who was the "Shattuck" beneficiary in the 1623 will of John Wolcott of Tolland. Tolland is only three and a half miles from Bishops Lydeard. Alexander married Agnes Sealy in Tolland Jan. 15, 1605. As I have noted earlier, there were both business and social ties between the families that lived in West Bagborough, Combe Florey and Tolland. The Wolcotts of Tolland owned a fulling mill for finishing cloth and exported cloth through Bristol Channel ports, particularly Minehead. The fact Alexander is named in the John Wolcott will probably means he was a weaver transporting his raw cloth to Tolland. Perhaps he was also an in-law.
We have the John Crosse will in 1538 tying the Wolcotts to Alexander, the founder of the West Bagborough Shattocks. John Crosse died in Combe Florey, a village involved in the cloth trade, and only a few miles from both Tolland and Bishops Lydeard.
The Sealy family were also connected to the Wolcotts. There is a John Sealey in John Wolcott's will of 1623.
Alexander's granddaughter Joan Shattock (1685-1760) married William Sealy in Bishops Lydeard. In fact there is evidence that Agnes Sealey was a relative or a close family friends of the Wolcotts. In his study of the Wolcott family of Somerset, a descendant of the Wolcotts, John Wolcott quotes this research:
- In 1612, John Woolcott of Tolland, husbandman, made a deposition on behalf of Robert Sellack of Tolland. He said he had lived at Tolland for about 50 years, and before that at Elworthy since infancy, and that he was born at Tolland and was age 65 or thereabouts (b. c. 1547). His son, John Woollcott, junior, of Tolland, yeoman, also testified, saying he was age 30 of thereabouts and had lived at Tolland since birth. John's will, dated and proved in 1623, leaves household items and 5 shillings 8 pence to Hugh, Agnes, and Mary, children of his son, John; 6 shillings 8 pence to each child of his son, Henry; 2 shillings 6 pence to "Symon Wolcott my kinsman now dwelinge wth me"; 2 shillings 6 pence to his servant, Giles More; 7 pence each to Richard Locke and Alexander Shattuck; 12 pence to John Sealey; 2 shillings to Maudlen Engram; and the remainder to his son, John; with Christopher and Henry Woolcot as witnesses."
John Sealey must have been a relative of Agnes Sealey. In John Wolcott's study of the Somerset Wolcotts there are quite a few marriages between Wolcotts and Sealeys.
A Shattock family appears to have been living in Tolland at about the same time we discover Alexander Shattuck (ca. 1495-1546) in West Bagborough, four miles east of Tolland. The reference comes from Lemuel Shattuck's Descendants. Lemuel Shattuck says (p. 13): "In the year 1525 Samuel Shattocke and Alice Shattocke of Tolland, in Somersetshire, appear upon the Rolls which contain Assessments of the Subsidies granted by Parliament."
St. John in Tolland
Alexander's connection to the Wolcott family speaks to the rank Alexander held in local west Somerset families. Alexander "Shattock" in “The American Genealogist” Vol. 81 p. 40 is listed as one of a group of 5 people contributing 20s for repair of church of Tolland. This supports the idea that Alexander was a weaver. Weavers are responsible for the improvement of many medieval and early modern churches in Somerset and Devon. They had the excess income to provide charity to the church which helped guarantee a Christian afterlife.
We cannot be sure which of the three Alexanders born in West Bagborough, two in 1577 and one in 1579, was the one who moved to Bishops Lydeard.
As I have noted above, the other two Alexander Shatticks may have moved to London. If they were carpenters they may have been following in the footsteps of an earlier West Bagborough expatriate. There was plenty of work in the dockyards.
The name Alexander appeared in the records in the early part of the 16th century, made an appearance in the Bishops Lydeard records, but after being listed in the 1641 Protestation return for Bishops Lydeard, it never appears again for at least the next two centuries, except in London where two Alexander Shatticks are married in 1639 and 1643.
The problem is we do not know if Alexander left any direct male descendants in Bishops Lydeard. On the Bishops Lydeard page I present evidence that Alexander's lineage runs out in Bishops Lydeard. However there is a John Shattock senior who shows up in the Bishops Lydeard parish records. I think there is a very good case for identifying him as the cousin or uncle of the Alexander who moved to Bishops Lydeard.
Samuel Shattuck of Salem?
I discuss the possibility that one of the two early immigrants to the Massachuetts Bay colony, Samuel Shattuck, was born in West Bagborough. It is found in the Pilgrims and Strangers page under the section "Samuel Shattock of West Bagborough." I identify Samuel Shattock, born Jun. 1, 1575, as the possible father to Samuel Shattuck of Salem, and perhaps Damaris Shattuck, sister to Samuel. There is no record of a baptism of a son Samuel and a daughter Damaris in the Anglican West Bagborough church. But they may have been Anabaptists, or Quakers, as Salem appears to have been a Quaker haven.
West Bagborough Descendants
At this point the parish records for West Bagborough fail to provide us with solid evidence that the West Bagborough descendants continued to live in West Bagborough. We can reliably trace their descent through five generations, but can we find the links to the next generations down to the present? Alexander's name is not passed down through subsequent generations. The Alexander name and the surname "Shattick" is found in London for several generations but there is no evidence that direct male descendants can be found presently in London or elsewhere. If the North Molton Shatticks share a common ancestor with the West Bagborough Shattocks, as they do the surname "Shattick," the founder in North Molton, Thomas Shattick (b. abt. 1500) may have been a close relative of the founder of West Bagborough Shatticks, Alexander (ca. 1495 - 1546). Living descendants of Thomas may be the members of our family with the modern form of the surname, "Shaddick." They descend from North Molton Shatticks.
However I think that there were two, perhaps three, West Bagborough Shatticks who moved to Bishops Lydeard: John and William. This is a scenario where a failing cloth market in the Tolland - Stogumber area led tradespeople in West Bagborough to seek employment or business elsewhere, some in London and some in villages closer to Taunton. I discuss this in the Bishops Lydeard article.