Possible Forms of the Name in the Medieval Period
The Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain and Ireland lists Saddok as a possible early form of the Shattocke name. Here is what I was able to dig out of the historical records.
There are very early records of a surname variously spelled "Sadoc, Saddok and Shaddek" in the patent rolls and various legal documents dating back to the 12th century in England. Christopher Chattock, a surveyor by trade and an antiquarian by passion, published a book in 1884 in which he devotes a whole chapter laying the foundation for his theory that Chattocks, Shattocks, Shattucks and other variations of surname have at their etymological root a Jewish surname, Shetach that appears as Sadoc, Sadock and Saddock in early medieval legal documents. (I have excerpted the entire Chapter 8 of the book: Antiquities: consisting of translations of some three hundred inedited charters and deeds, Chattock, Christopher. Birmingham, Cornish brothers, 1884.) He theorizes that the first Jewish "Shetachs" to arrive in England were brought over by William the Conqueror to manage the monetary fortunes of his new kingdom. They assimilated and converted to Christianity. He finds the earliest record of the name in Richard Saddock of A.D. 1180 and his son Richard Saddock, Jr. of 1191. "The Shaddocks of the Have of Eardington, near Bridgenorth, are mentioned so early that the grandfathers of the Richard Saddock, of A.D. 1180, and the Richard Saddock, Junior, of 1191, must have been alive at the Conquest." Besides using etymology studies as his evidence, he does an extensive study of legal documents for a property in Shropshire owned by Chattocks, trying to make the connection between Sadoc Jews and the land grants provided to the historical Jews for their service to the conquering king.
Modern DNA studies upend his theory as far as Chattocks and Shattockes are concerned. First of all Shattockes are not related to Chattocks. They originate in Somerset whereas the Chattocks originate in the north of England, near Shropshire. Secondly Shattockes are descended from an Alpine Celt (U152) who lived long before the diaspora of the Jews from the Middle East. U152 was alive around 2300 BC, eight hundred years earlier than the oldest religious account of the Israelite people. And the Chattocks, who are genetically unrelated to the Shattocks, are descended from an early to middle Medieval man in England, who was descended from a northern Germanic tribe. So if Christopher Chattock is correct in his research and Sadocs or Saddocks are descended from immigrant Jews during the Norman conquest, then we can say that there is no genetic relationship between them and the descendants of Shattocke ancestors. You would have to argue that the immigrant Shetach Jews were earlier converted to the the Jewish religion which seems unlikely given the history of the persecution of Jews.
There is some evidence for the presence of Saddoks in the county next door and to the north of Somerset, Berkshire. John, son of Richard Saddock is a tenant on the Stroud farm in the civil parish of Bray in the county of Berkshire in that year. There is a long history of the Saddok family in the county, with its most prominent member, Andrew Saddok, the rector of Whyte Waltham, a parish in Berkshire. He was apparently a man of property and wealth, as "Andrew Saddok and Richard Hanard owned an interest in the Earley Batholomew manor as of 1344 until 1355." The Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain and Ireland lists Saddok as possible early form of Shattocke, although Saddok has an obscure origin. The name disappears from the records before Shattocke appears in the records. I have collected the references to the Saddok family in a subpage of this one. One reference spells the name "Saddock" and another "Shaddek."
Christopher Chattock makes the following reference to the discovery of the form "Shaddock" even earlier: The Shaddocks of the Have of Eardington, near Bridgenorth, are mentioned so early that the grandfathers of the Richard Saddock, of A.D. 1180, and the Richard Saddock, Junior, of 1191, must have been alive at the Conquest (pp. 272-3 of Chattock, Christopher. Antiquities: Consisting of Translations of Some Three Hundred Inedited Charters And Deeds. Birmingham: Cornish brothers, 1884). Unfortunately Chattock does not cite the sources for the late 12th century "Shaddock" names. There is an index at the front of the book listing forms of the name found in his book.
The following notes are from my own research.
John de Fienles, knight, acknowledges that he owes to Andrew Saddok, clerk, 1001. ; to be levied, etc. in co. Berks. June 25, 1341 in “Calendar of the close rolls preserved in the Public Record Office : Edward III ; prepared under the superintendence of the Deputy Keeper of the Records"
The History and Antiquities of the Hundred of Bray, in the County of Berks
by Charles Kerry, London, Printed for the author by Savill and Edwards, 1861.
P 41 The following lands formed the chief part of the [Thomas] Little estate in Bray….Saddocks, 5 ac. [etc.]
p. 99 1432 John Palmer & Will. Saddok did homage for the land formerly belonging to Robert Punter.
The next section, pp. 100-102 seem to apply to the Manor of Strouds
p. 100 SADDOKS. Two fields belonging to Stroud farm adjoining "Whites” :—
1288 John, son of Richard Saddok, a tenant of manor.
1292 William Saddok, fine 6d, 1334, depastured a cow in Bedroede.
1333 Richard, son of Richard S.[addok]
1334 Elena, relict of Richd S.
1334 Gunilda S.
1334 Simon S., paid 2d for pasturage of cow in Bedmead.
1335, 8 “Andr’ Saddok Rector ecctie de Whyte Waltham.” (B.C.R.) Two monuments in the chancel of W. Waltham church commemorate Gilbert Saddok & his wife—circa 1350. (Ashmole.)
1340 William S. died, leaving William S., his son, his heir. Heriot, a cow worth 5s. Relief, 2s 6d.
1375 Robert S., Tithingman of Stroud. 1474.
1490 John S. , Tithingman of Stroud.
1503 Robert S. “Esson.” 1514
p. 131 [refers to “Down Place,” the property. of Sir Robert Jones.] “In 1627, John Page of Down P., was possessed of “Saddockes” (then in the tenure of Anthony Blagrave).
A Descriptive Catalogue of Ancient Deeds: Volume 5 Deeds: A.13001 - A.13100
[Berks.] A. 13011. (1) Feoffment by John de Benetfeld to Andrew Saddok, rector of the church of Whytewaltham, Edmund Smewyn and John son of Robert at Lake, of all his land, &c. in the towns or fees of Benetfeld, Whytewaltham, Sottesbrok and Wokyngham, with the rever- sion expectant on the decease of Joan late his father's wife of the land, &c. she holds in dower, the easement of a chamber excepted, wherein he lies, for life. Benetfeld, Friday after St. John before the Latin Gate, 23 Edward III.
(2) Release by Edmund Smewyn of Whytewaltham, to Andrew Saddok, rector of the church of the same, of his right in land, &c. as above, by virtue of the above feoffment. Whytewaltham, Monday, the feast of St. Margaret, 23 Edward III.
(3) Letter of attorney of even date, by the above Edmund, to John le Saye, vicar of the church of Whytewaltham, to put the said Andrew in possession.
(4) Grant by the said Andrew, and John son of Robert at Lake, to Walter de Auneford, parson of the church of Benetfeld, and William Aleyn, of New Wyndesor, clerk, of the above land, &c. Witnesses:—Thomas Foxeley, Sir John Olyver, parson of the church of Fynchamstede, William le Englysch. Benetfeld, 30 September, 23 Edward III.
(5) Letter of attorney of even date by same to John de Auneford, chaplain, and John Barton of Benetfeld to deliver seisin.
(6) Feoffment by Thomas Holbot and Joan his wife, to William Wykham and Elizabeth Farnham, of all the land, &c. which they had by the gift and feoffment of Walter de Auneford, parson of the church of Benetfeld, and of William Aleyn of New Wyndesor, clerk, in Benetfeld, Whyte Waltham, Sottesbrook and Wokyngham; to hold to the said William and Elizabeth, their heirs and assigns. Witnesses:—John Everdon, parson of the church of Benetfeld, and others (named). Benetfeld, 26 January, 9 Henry IV.
(7) Release by John Farnham and Agnes his wife to William Wykham and Elizabeth Farneham their daughter, their heirs and assigns of all their right in land, &c. in Benetfeld, Whytewaltham, Sottesbrook and Wokyngham, which after the death of Thomas Holbot, and Joan his wife ought to remain to them, in right of the said Agnes. Witnesses:—John Everdon, parson of the church of Benetfeld, and others (named). Benetfeld, 26 January, 9 Henry IV.
(8) Schedule attached. Copy of court roll. In the margin 'Cokeham.' John Lake son of Agnes daughter and heir of John son and heir of Robert atte Lake claims by descent, in right of Agnes his mother now (jam) wife of John Farnham, all the land, &c. late belonging to Thomas son of Thomas Holbode and to Joan daughter of John de Benetfeld his wife which the said Thomas and Joan his wife had by the gift and feoffment of Walter Aunefford, parson of the church of Benetfeld, and of William Alayn, chaplain, by charter indented, shown in the court held at 'le Leyghe,' Tuesday before St. Katharine, the Virgin, 23 Edward III, and dated at Benetfeld, 19 November in the said year; which land, &c. the said Walter and William had by the gift of Andrew Saddok, parson of the church of Whyte Waltham, and of John son of Robert atte Lake, who had the same by the gift and feoffment of John Benetfeld, in Benetfeld, White- waltham, Sottesbrook and Wokyngham.
Endorsed:—Andreas Saddok, clericus, dedit, &c. Johanne filie et heredi Johannis Benefeld et heredibus de corpore suo, &c.
(9) On dorse. Writ by King Henry to the bailiffs of Humphrey de Lancastre, knight, of Cokeham and Bray, to do right according to the custom of the manor of Cokeham and Bray to William Wykeham and Elizabeth his wife, in respect of a messuage, mill, 200a. land, 50a. meadow, 46a. wood and 60s. rent in Benetfeld, White Waltham, Sottesbrok and Wokyngham, which Thomas Holbot and Joan his wife, and John Farneham and Agnes his wife deforced to them. Westminster, 24 January, 9 Henry [IV].
(10) Final concord made in the court of Sir Humphrey de Lancaster, knight, the king's son, of his manor of Cokham, held there, Tuesday, the last day of January, 9 Henry IV, before John Barton, then steward there, William Louches and others (named), suitors of the said court, between William Wykeham and Elizabeth his wife, querents, and Thomas Holbot and Joan his wife and John Farneham and Agnes, his wife, deforciants, of a messuage, mill, 40a. (sic), meadow, &c. as above, by virtue of the king's writ of right, &c., to hold to the said William and Elizabeth and their heirs; consideration, 100l &c.
(11) Feoffment by Andrew Saddok, clerk, to Joan daughter and heir of John de Benetfeld, of all the land, &c. which he had by John's gift in the towns or fees of Whitewaltham, Sottisbrok, Wokyngham and Benetfeld, with the reversion of the land, &c. held by Joan late the wife of John's father in dower, a croft of arable called 'Wylkestrecche' and la. arable in 'Bradecroft' next land of John de Fienles &c. excepted, and except the rents and services of Richard le Stout in Whytewaltham and Benetfeld, and 4s. 3d. rent there from John atte Feld; to hold to the said Joan and the heirs of her body, with remainder in default to John son of Robert at Lake in tail, with remainder in default to the right heirs of John de Benetfeld. Witnesses:—Walter Aneford, rector of the church of Benetfeld, and others (named). Benetfeld, Sunday before the lifting up of the Holy Rood, 23 Edward III.
(12) Pedigree:—Johannes de Benetfeld de quo (1) Johannes de Benefeld, de quo Johannes de Benfeld, de quo Johanna que disponsata fuit Thome Holbote qui quidem Thomas et Johanna levaverunt finem, &c. simul cum Johanne Farneham et Agnete uxore ejus infrascriptis. (2) Matilda que desponsata fuit Roberto atte Lake et habuit exitum Johannem atte Lake de quo Agnes que desponsata fait Johanni Farneham qui quidem Johannes Farneham et Agnes levaverunt finem predictum cum predictis Thoma Holbot et Johanna uxore ejus'. Copies on one skin.
A History of the County of Berkshire: Volume 3.
Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1923.
Andrew Saddok and Richard Hanard owned an interest in the Earley Batholomew manor as of 1344 until 1355. (Earley is a town and civil parish in the English county of Berkshire. Along with neighbouring Woodley, it forms part of the extensive eastern suburbs of Reading.)
Calendar of Patent Rolls
Edward III – Part II
[Ed. Appears to be about money borrowed by Edward III for his war in France. “Caleys” is an old form for Calais, the French port across the Strait of Dover from England, and a principal port of entry for the English. Seems that Nicolas Saddok was part of the military campaign to Calais. ]
p. 352 July 16, 1350 Westminster: Whereas the king is bound to Robert de Ufford, earl of Suffolk, in Westminster. 755l. 17s 18d. to wit 667l. 8s. 3d. by letters patent under the great seal, 24l.2s. of a balance of a sum due by a bill of the wardrobe under the seal of Walter de Wetewang, late keeper thereof, 54l. 7s. 5d. of arrears of his wages of the time when he was sent as the king's envoy at Calais, and 10l. which he paid by the king's order to Robert de Tanny, king's serjeant at arms, and Nicholas Saddok, lately in the king's service of Caleys, when these were going to Gascony and Brittany, as by account rendered at the exchequer more fully appears; he in satisfaction of such debt has granted to the earl that the 1201. which he has to pay in the chamber for the custody of the lands late of John Bernak, tenant in chief, committed to him during the nonage of the heir, shall be allowed him year by year until 633l. 6s. 8d. of the debt be satisfied : and the remaining 122l. 11s. of the debt the king by these presents promises to pay. In case the earl for no fault of his own be at any time removed from possession of the lands before payment of the sum aforesaid has been fully made, any balance then due is to remain as a debt against the king. By bill of the treasurer
p. 395 May 1, 1434 Westminster. Commission, pursuant to Act of the last Parliament [Rolls of Parliament, Vol. IV, pp. 455-457] to W. bishop of Lincoln and William le Souche of Haryngworth, 'chivaler,' and Thomas Grenham and William Beaufo, knights of the shire for the county of Rutland in the last Parliament, to issue their warrant to the sheriff for proclamation in the next court of the county that the following whose names have been certified into chancery by the said knights of the shire as those of persons who should take the oath not to maintain peace breakers referred to in the said Act [see Rolls of Parliament Vol.IV,p. 422] should appear before the said commissioners, or three or two of them, and take the said oath, viz.
p. 189 Dec. 18 1335 Auckland Presentation of Andrew Saddok to the church of Little Codeford, in the diocese of Salisbury. By p.s. [he was parson of Little Codeford]
North of London.
In the book "Shotley Taxpayers," in the collection "Suffolk: Shotley - Parish Records (A General Record of the Parish)" we have the text "Sottesbrok, Berks. Inquisition made there on Saturday the morrow of the Apostles Simon & Jude, 28 Edward, through the oath of Gilbert Saddok, William Jor." Note: Suffolk is a county to the north of London.
There is a reference to a Saddok in Suffolk in 1327. "De Johanne Saddok 6" was buried in 1327 in the collection "Suffolk: - Subsidy Returns, 1327."